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142 Cards in this Set

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Two major schools of thought
structuralism and functionalism
structuralism
analyzed consciouness into its basic elements and investigates how these elements are related
functionalism
investigates function or purpose of consciousness
William James
1842-1910 founder of functionalism
Edward Titchener
1892 founder of structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt
German (1832-1920) U of Leipzig, founder of psychology, def. psych as study of conscious experience
introspection
careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience
natural selection
inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus become "selected" over time
James hoped to achieve the study of...
stream of consciousness, counter argued structuralists were looking at static elements
behaviorism
theoretical orientation based on premise that scientific study should only be on observable behavior
John B Watson
(1878-1958) stated behaviorism, abandon consciousness, study observable because verifiable, nature vs nurture, animal research
behavior
refers to any over (observable) response or activity by an organism
Gestalt psychology
German opposition to behaviorism, other was Freud
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalytical theory, applied to diagnose patients with mental disorders, self diagnosis
psychoanalytical theory
attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
Freud focuses
personality, motivation and abnormal behavior
B.F. Skinner
(1904-1990) behaviorist, free will is an illusion, argued unconscious events cannot be studied scientifically, emphasized environmental factors, most influential American
underlying principle of Skinner
organisms tend to repeat favorable outcomes as they tend to not repeat negative and neutral outcomes
humanism
theo. orientation emphasizes unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Behavioral Period
1913, WPS, overt behavior, stimulus repsonse (Watson, Pavlov, Skinner)
Psychoanalytical Period
1900, FJA, unconscious motives in childhood rule personality and mental disorders (Freud, Jung, Adler)
Humanistic Period
1950, RM, humans are free with growth, diff. from animals (Rogers, Maslow)
Cognitive Period
1950, PCS thoughts mental processes humans cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store and process information (Piaget, Chomsky, Simon)
Biological Period
1950, OSHW, organism (animal and human) functioning can be determined in terms of their bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior (Olds, Sperry, Hubel, Wisel)
Evolutionary Period
1980, DBWTC, behavior patterns evolved to solve adaptive problems, natural selection (Buss, Daly, Wilson, Cosmides, Tooby)
cognition
metnal processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Roger Sperry
1981 research showed left and right halves of the brain are specialized to handle different types of mental tasks
psychology
science tha studes behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that paplies the accumlated knowledge of this science to practical problems
research areas in psychology
developmental, social, experimental, physiological, cognitive, personality, psychometrics
professional specialities in psychology
clinical, counseling, educational/ school, industrial/organizational
goals of scientific enterprise
md, up, ac, (measurement, description, understanding, prediction, application, control)
theory
system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations, allow for descrip of behavior to understanding
steps in scientific investigation
HDCAR
1. hypothesis
2. design the study
3. collect the data
4. analyze the data, draw con
5. report the findings
survey research
involves administrating questionairres, and interviews to a large number of people
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
experiment
research method in whic hthe investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
IV
condition/event experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
DV
variable that's thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
extraneous variables
any other variables other than the independent varirable that seem likely to influence the dv in a specific study
confounding
occurs when 2 variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
experimental group
receive some special treament in regard to IV
control group
don't receive special treatment unlike given to the experimental group
theory of IV and DV
can manipulate more than 1 IV or measure more than 1 DV in experiment
pros of experiment
conclusions about cause and effect relationships can be shown
cons of experiment
artificial, can't explore research questions
correlation
2 variables are related to eachother, strenthg 0 to 1
negative correlation
covary in oppositite direction, - sign
positive correlation
covary in same direction, + sign
prediction and correlation
as strength increases, prediction of 1 V increases
naturalistic observation
careful observation of behavior, no interact with subjects
case study
in depth investigation into a individual subject, independent
survey
researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of participants' behavior
replication
repetition of study to see duplication in results
sample
collection of subjects for study
sampling bias
sample is not representative of pop.
placebo effect
participants' expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake or ineffectual treatment
experimenter bias
preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
theories go from ___ to
description to understanding
operational
describes the actions used to measure or control a variable
glia
cells that provide insulation, provide structural support
neurons
cells that integrate, transmite and receive info
soma
cell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery
dendrites
spiderlike, parts of neuron that are specialized to receive info, RECEPTOR sites
axon
long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles, glands, (impulses are trans)
myelin sheath
insulating material encases axons, fatty substance; speeds up transmission of signals along axon, less shealth less signal
terminal buttons
knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
multiple sclerosis
loss of muscle due to loss of myelin shealth
synapse
junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another (terminal button)
vary in size and shape, densely interconnected
neurons
neural impluse
neuron's stimulated, nature of the signal
Hodgkin and Huxley
1952, neural impulse, electrochemical, squid large, inside & outside fluids, resting potential
resting potential
of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive, -70 militvolts, 1/20 flashlight battery
ions
electrically charged atoms and molecules, inside and outside the atom
differences in flow rates...
lead to a higher concentration of negatively charged ions inside the cell
action potential
voltage at constant, no messages are being sent, very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon
lock and key mechanism
where sites are tuned to recognize and respond to some neurotransmitters but not to others
neurotransmitters are released when
syn. vesicle unites with the membrance of the presynaptic cell and its concents spill into the synaptic cleft
cell to cell messaging
inhibitory and excitatory
excitatory PSP
positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that posynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
inhibitory PSP
negative voltage shift that decrease the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
when a neurotransmitter and a receptor molecule combine reactions in the cell membrance
cause a PSP
posynaptic potential PSP
a voltage change at a receptor site on a posynaptic cell membrace, either E or I
PSPs increase/decrease the
probability of a neural impulse in the receiving cell
2 Types of PSP messages
excitatory and inhibitory
direc. of voltage, nature of PSP (in. or excitatory) depends on..
where the receptor sites are activated
reuptake
process where NT's sponged up from synpatic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
synpatic transmission
SRRIB (synthesis, storage, release of NTs, RUPtake, Inactivation (enzyme) removal (drift away), binding of neurotransmitters
how many neurotransmitters are there?
9 well known, 40 that function PT (neuropeptide)
acetylcholine (ACh)
skeletal muscles, attent, arousual and memory, some recep. by nicotine
dopamine (DA)
cont. voluntary movement, emotions, cocaine and amphetamines elevate DA synapses (low parkinson's and high schizo)
norepinehphrine
mood, arousal, cocaine @ amph. elevate at NE
serotonin
sleep, wakefulness, eating, aggression, dep, OCD, SSTi's like prozac affect here
endorphins
resemble opiate drugs, pain relief, pleasurable emotions
agonist
chemical mimics the actions of the neurotransmitter
antagonist
chemical refutes teh action of the neurotransmitter
monomaines
3 NT's, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin DNS, everyday behavior
endorphins
internally produced chemical sthat resmeble opiates in structure and effects
human nervous system is divided into...
central and peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
nerves
bundles of neuron fibers (axons)
PNS can be subdivided into
somatic and automatic nervous system
somatic nervous system SNS
made of nerves connecting to voluntary skeletal muscles, sensory receptors
afferent nerve fibers
axons carry info into CNS from peripherary
effervent nerve fibers
axons carry info away from CNS to peripherary
automatic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands
ANS divides into
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
sympathetic
part of ANS mobilizes body's resources for emergencies, fight or flight response MOBILIIZE
parasympathetic
part of ANS conserves body resources, save & store energy CONSERVE
CNS central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
CT
computerized tomography, X ray of brain structure
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging, uses magnetic fields, radio waves and computers to map out brain structures
PET
position emission tomography, color coded, radioactive markers to map out chemical activity
fMRI
functional MRI monitors blood and oxygen flow
3 divisions of brain
hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain
hindbrain
cerebrum, medulla and pons (2 located below)
medulla
regulates unconscious funtions (breathing, maintaining muscle tone, circulation)
pons
bridge of fibers, sleep and arousal
cerebrum
(little brain) coordinates fine movement and balance
midbrain
area regulates intregating sensory processes like vision and hearing
reticular formation
contributes to modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, pain, sleep & wakefulness
forebrain
largest and most complex part of the brain
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the brain
thalamus
structure in the forebrain through which all sensory info (no smell) must pass to arrive at cerebral cortex; made of somas
hypothalamus
invovled in reg. of basic biological needs, four F's
limbic system
loosely connected network of strcutres located along border between cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
hippocampus
part of limbic system involved in learning, memory
amygdala
fear responses here
cerebral cortex
convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
cerebral hemisphere
right and left halves of the cerebrum disc. by Roger Sperry
corpus callosum
major structure that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres
chromosomes
threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
polygenic traits
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
genes
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
family studies
researches asses hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
twin studies
researches assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trai
adoption studies
look at relationships between the children and their parents
fitness
refers to the reproductive success (number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
variations in reproductive success
fuel evoltionary change
natural selection
heritable characteristics with advantage are more likely to be passed down and selected over time
adaptation
inherited characteristic that increased in a population though natural selection because it helps solve a problem of survial or reproduction during the time it emerged
occipital love
VISION, back of head, includes the cortical area where most visual signals are send and visual processing is begun, primary visual cortex
parietal lobe
sense of touch