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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
• mental activity associated with processing, understanding , and communicating info
• To think about so many things, we group them into concepts: mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
The best representation of a concept. I.e. A dog maybe a good example of the concept of four legged animals
A logical procedure guaranteed to solve a problem. This method is slow but less likely to make mistakes. I.e. unscramble the letters in SOSIA to find the word. An Algorithmic approach would be to try all the possible combinations of letters.
Using “rule-of-thumb” strategies to solve problems and make judgements efficiently. This method is faster but more likely to make mistakes.
I.e. Unscramble SOSIA. A Heuristic approach would not try combinations with 2 SS’s together.
A sudden flash of inspiration and the solution to problem comes to you. This contrasts with strategic problem solving methods.
Confirmation Bias:
You tend to look for answers that confirm your own expectations/guesses
Inability to look at a problem from a different perspective.
Mental Set:
A type of fixation that works on previous solutions that are successful. It is like your mind is set on your mental set
Functional Fixedness:
You tend to think of things in their usual functions.
I.e. Inability to see that a paperclip could also be used as a hook instead of clipping papers.
Representative Heuristics:
The tendency to judge things according to how well they match a prototype. Thinking in terms on well something “represents” another. I.e. if I say a person is strong, muscular, and fast, you might think the person is some sort of athlete because those qualities best represent an athlete. However, the person could very well be a fit professor.
Availability Heuristics:
The tendency to base the likelihood of events on how vivid you remembered them. How “available” the instance is in your memory.
I.e. If your printer broke down once and took you forever to fix it so that you remember the instance greatly, the next time you advise someone about a printer, you’ll most likely say printers break down easily.
Overestimating the accuracy of your judgements. Same as being Overconfident.
The way information is shown or set up. Just like how something is “framed” as in framing of a picture. If the picture is of fruits and the frame looks like an interwoven wooden thread, then the picture looks very natural. If the picture is placed around a frame that is grey and metallic-like, the effect is very different. Just like if I “frame” the statement: there is a 70% chance of winning as opposed to 30% chance of losing.
Belief bias:
The tendency to perceive what is conflicting with our beliefs to be illogical.
Belief Perseverance:
Tendency for your beliefs to remain or “preserve” even if where you formulated the belief is a wrong source. I.e. if Jim tells you that dogs can run faster than cats and you believe it, then even If you find out that Jim is a mental patient, your belief that dogs are faster than cats still remain.
Artificial Intelligence (AI):
Computerized systems that mimic human thinking abilities.
Neural Networks:
Computer circuitry that resemble the real “neural networks” of interconnected neurons in the brain
The combination of gestured, spoken, and/or written words to communicate meaning.
The smallest sound unit. I.e. In fish there are 3 phonemes: f, i, sh
The smallest meaningful unit (this includes pre/suffices). I.e. I, a, dog, -ed, un-, me ~ are all morphemes.
Rules in a language that allows us to properly understand it.
How we get meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
The basic units of sign language are defined by: _1_ and _2_
1. Hand shapes
2. Movements
Beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech developement in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
Babbling Stage
The stage in speech developement, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
One-word Stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech developement during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
Two-Word Stage
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary words"
Telegraph Speech
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Linguistic Determinism