Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/175

Click to flip

175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A major resource for coping with stress is _______.
social support
Motivation refers to ...
the driving force behind behavior that leads us to pursue some things and avoid others.
Motives can be divided into ____ needs and _____ needs (such as needs for: ___, ___, ____, and ____), although few motives are strictly ____ or ____.
biological needs and psychological needs (such as needs for dominance, power, achievement, and relatedness to others), although few motives are strictly biological or learned.
Which two words share the same Latin root which means to move?
Motivation and Emotion.

Latin root: movere
Emotion (or affect) is ...
a positive or negative feeling (or an evaluative response) that typically includes some combination of physiological arousal, subjective experience, and behavioral or emotional expression.
How many components does motivation have? What are they?
Two: 'What' and 'How Strongly'.

'What' people want to do (the goals they pursue)

and

'How strongly' they want to do it.
What does the psychodynamic perspective emphasize?
It emphasizes the biological basis of motivation.
Human motives reflect their ...
animal heritage.
Who said that, like other animals, humans are driven by drives?
Freud
What are drives?
Internal tension states that build up until they are satisfied.
What two drives did Freud propose?
Sex and Aggression
The sexual drive includes desires for ...
love, lust, and intimacy.
The aggression drive includes ...
not only blatantly aggressive or sadistic impluses but desires to control or master other people and the environment.
Can aggression drives express themselves in subtle ways?
Yes.

For example: Aggression can underlie sarcastic comments or enjoyment of violent movies.
What two drives did Freud initially propose?
Self-preservation and Sex
Have psychodynamic views of motivation advanced at all since Freud's death (which was when?)?
Yes, they've advanced considerably.

Freud died in 1939
In addition to sexual and aggressive desires, what other two motives in particular do psychodynamic theorists now emphasize?
The need for relatedness to others (independent of sexual desires) and the need for self-esteem (feeling good about oneself).
Freud's theory of aggression as an instinct
(?stated/suggested) that ...
it (aggression) builds up until discharged.
What type of theory did Freud have?

Have psychodynamic theorist embraced this theory more or less over time?
dual-instinct theory (sex and aggression)

They've embraced it less: "they have moved away from Frued's dual-instinct theory."
Freud's decision to change one of his drives from self-preservation to aggression stemmed in part from ...

What did he reason?
living through WWI and witnessing the beginning of WWII in Europe.


He reasoned that if aggression on such a massive scale kept breaking through in the most "civilized" societies, then it must be a basic motivational force.
Freud had an abstract notion of ____.
"drives"
In comparison to "drives," what two concepts seem closer to the data of clinical observation?

Who is moving closer to these?
Wishes and Fears

psychodynamic theorists
A wish is ...
a representation of a desired state that is associated with emotion or arousal.
Have psychodynamic theorist moved closer or farther from Freud's "drives" theory?
Farther
Few or Many psychologists (or even psychoanalysts) now accept Freud's theory of aggression as an instinct that builds up until discharged?
Few
A fear is a representation of ...
an undesired state that is associated with unpleasant feelings.
Until recently, the evidence for unconscious motivation was largely ...
clinical or anecdotal.
To study unconscious motives, researchers often use ...
the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Perhaps the most distinctive aspect of the psychodynamic theory of motivation is the view that ...
motives can be unconscious.
Once a wish is achieved, it may become ...
temporarily deactivated or less intense.
Are the motives that researchers code from people's TAT stories predictive of their behavior over time?
Yes, highly predictive.
Are the motives expressed by TAT stories conscious or inferred?
inferred
What's the correlation between self-reported motives and TAT stories?
Typically zero
What are two methods researchers use to measure people's motives?
TAT stories and to simply ask them if achievement, power, intimacy, etc., important to them.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) consists of ...

What do researchers do with the results?
a series of ambiguous pictures about which subjects make up a story.


Researchers then code the stories for motivational themes.
True or False

The achievement motivation assessed by the TAT is far more predictive of long-term entrepreneurial success than the same motive assessed by self-report?
True
The 'TAT' is the 'self-report' are each a type of ______.
measure
Do the TAT and self-report predict the same or different kinds of behavior?
Different
What does the TAT assess?
Achievement motivation via unconscious motivation.
Do people who demonstrate high achievement motivation in their TAT stories (self-) report high motivation to achieve?
Not necessarily. So the correlation is typically zero.
The TAT taps _____ motives, whereas self-reports reflect _____ motives.

This explains why ...
TAT taps implicit (unconscious) motives.

Self-reports reflect explicit (conscious) motives.

This explains why both types of measure can not predict each other, even though they can both predict achievement behavior.
Which are more flexible, conscious or unconscious motives, and for how long?

Can one override the other?
Conscious motives are more flexible and controllable than unconscious motives. They can also override unconscious motives, but only temporarily.
Implicit and explicit motives reflect ...
different kinds of child-rearing experiences.
Freud argued that humans are motivated by ...
two drives--internal tension states that build up until they are satisfied--sex and aggression.
The most distinctive aspect of the psychodynamic approach is ...
its distinction between conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) motives, which is receiving increasing empirical support.
Besides Freud's internal tension states--sex and aggression--contemporary psychodynamic theorists emphasize other needs as well, notably _____ and _____, and conceptualize motives in terms of ____ and ____.
self-esteem and relatedness


wishes and fears
The theory of operant conditioning offers (if only "implicitly") one of the clearest and most empirically supported views of motivation: Humans, like other animals, are motivated to ...
produce behaviors rewarded by the environment and to avoid behaviors that are punished.
Learning theorists recognized many years ago that the internal state of the organism ...
influences reinforcement.
What leads to drives?
Unfulfilled needs.
All biological organisms have ____.
needs, such as those for food, drink, and sex.
According to this view, deprivation of basic needs creates an unpleasant state of tension; as a result, the animal begins emitting behaviors.
Drive-reduction
A primary drive is ...
an innate drive such as hunger, thirst, and sex.
True or False

Most human behaviors are not directed towards fufilling primary drives.
True
Drive-reduction theorist propose that ...
motivation stems from a combination of drive and reinforcement.
What are states of arousal that motivate behavior?
Drives
Define secondary drive.
A secondary drive is a drive learned through conditioning and other learning mechanisms such as modeling.
Do drive-reduction theories explain all behaviors?
No
When an originally neutral stimulus comes to be associated with drive reduction and thus itself becomes a motivator, this is what kind of drive?
Secondary (or aquired)
What would motivate behaviors more by the presence of an external stimulus or reward than an internal need state?
Incentive
Another name for secondary drive is ...
acquired drive
In many cultures, the drive for money is what kind of drive?
A secondary drive, which ultimately permits the satisfaction of many other primary and secondary drives.
Do drive-reduction theories explain a wide or narrow range of behaviors?
Wide, although they leave others unexplained.
Incentives control ...
much of human behavior.
True or False

Drive-reduction theories also have difficulty explaining motives to create stimulation, encounter novelty, or avoid boredom, which are present to varying degrees in different individuals.
True


(bottom of page 323)
Implicit in the theory of operant conditioning is that humans and other animals are motivated to ...
repeat behaviors that lead to reinforcement and to avoid behaviors associated with punishment.
Drive-reduction theories assert that ...
deprivation of basic needs creates an unpleasant state of tension; if the animal produces a behavior that reduces that tension, the behavior is reinforced.
Some drives, called ____ drives, are _____, whereas others, called _____ drives, are ...
Some drives, called primary drives, are innate, whereas others, called secondary drives, are learned through their association with primary drives.

learned through their association with primary drives.
What type to theories provide an alternative approach to motivation?
Cognitive
Which type of theories view motivation as a joint function of the value people place on an outcome and the extent to which they believe they can attain it?
Expectancy-value theories.
Which theory is this associated with: We are driven to attain goals that matter a lot to us but that we also believe we can accomplish.
Expectancy-value theories.
Cognitive approaches to motivation often focus on ____.
goals
Goals represent ...
desired outcomes that differ in some way from a person's current situation.
A cognitive theory widely used by organizational psychologists interested in worker motivation is ...
goal-setting theory.
The core proposition of goal-setting theory is ...
that conscious goals regulate much of human behavior, especially performance on work tasks.
Goals are ...
desired outcomes established through social learning.
Intrinsic motivation is ...
a person's enjoyment of and interest in an activity for its own sake.
Research using goal-setting theory suggests that maximum job performance occurs only under certain conditions. The person must:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(a) experience a discrepancy between what she has and wants.

(b) define specific goals.

(c) receive continuing feedback that allows her to gauge here progress toward the goal.

(d) believe she has the ability to attain the goal.

(e) set a high enough goal to remain motivated (so that the goal is not met to early or easily).

(f) have a high degree of commitment to the goal
If a person finds their motivation flagging in pursuit of a goal, they should ...
set more challenging goals.
Goals activate ...

and encourage ...
old solutions that have worked in the past and encourage efforts to create new solutions if the old ones fail.
What three innate needs does self-determination theory suggest that people have?

What else does self-determination theory suggests in relation to these needs?
1. Competence

2. Autonomy

3. Relatedness to others

That intrinsic motivation flourishes when these needs are fulfilled rather than compromised.
What controversial and counterintuitive prediction did Deci offer?

The most recent version of the theory is called?
That reward can actually stifle intrinsic pleasure in learning.

self-determination theory
According to self-determination theory, the effects of a reward on motivation depend on ...
how the individual perceives the situation.
According to self-determination theory, rewards tend to ...
compromise people's sense of autonomy.
Implicit motives are motives that ...
can be activated and expressed outside of awareness.
What kind of theory is self-determination theory. Has it drawn from elsewhere?
It's a cognitive theory.

Yes, it has drawn heavily from other perspectives.
Who's theory was it that children have innate needs for challenge and mastery?
Edward Deci
Implicit motives are motives that ...
can be activated and expressed outside of conscious awareness.
Self-actualization needs are ...

How do they differ from all the previous levels?
motives to express oneself and grow, or to actualize one's potential.


They differ b/c they are not deficiency needs; that is, they are not generated by a lack of something (food, shelter, closeness, the esteem of others).
According to expectancy-value theories, people are motivated to ...
perform a behavior to the extent that they value the potential outcome and believe they can attain it.
Goal-setting theory argues that ...
conscious goals regulate much of human action.
Intrinsic motivation refers to ...
enjoyment of and interest in an activity for its own sake.
According to self-determination theory, people have innate needs for ...
competence, autonomy, and relatedness, and intrinsic motivation flourishes when these needs are fulfilled.
What kind of needs are self-actualization needs?
They are growth needs--motives to expand and develop one's skills and abilities.
Except for ______, all of Maslow's needs are generated by ...
self-actualization


a lack of something, such as food or shelter.
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an alternative approach to _____.
motivation
Who essentially condensed Maslow's hierarchy to three levels of need? What are they and what's the name of the theory?
Clayton Alderfer

Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (hence ERG).

ERG theory
According to ERG theory, ...
worker satisfaction and motivation vary with the extent to which a job matches a given worker's needs.
According to ERG theory, worker satisfaction and motivation vary with the extent to which ...
a job matches a given worker's needs.
In the early part of the twentieth century, psychologists assumed that most motivated behaviors in humans, as in other animals, was a result of ______.
instincts--relatively fixed pattern of behavior produced w/o learning.

Most psychologists eventually abandoned instinct theory, for a number of reasons (p. 327).
What type of needs does Maslow's hierarchy include?
physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs (needs to express oneself and grow).
Which theory applied Maslow's model to the workplace?
ERG theory
What does ERG theory propose?
That workers are motivated by three kinds of needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
What is a general description of the needs Maslow proposed?
From needs that are basic to survival to needs that guide behavior only once a person has fulfilled needs lower down the hierarchy.
Pheromones are similar to hormones, except that they ...
allow cell-to-cell communication between rather than within organisms.
According to contemporary evolutionary theory, evolution selects animals that maximize ...
their inclusive fitness (their own reproductive success plus their influence on the reproductive success of genetically related individuals).
From a behavorist perspective, all behavior is under ...
evironmental control.
Many psychologists came to argue that ____, not ____, motivates behavior in humans.
learning, not intinct
The primary motives that emerge in cross-cultural research are ...
power and love, which is not surprising from an evolutionary perspective.
One of the most distinctive features of human behavior is its _____.
flexibility
Fixed patterns of behavior produced w/o learning.
Instincts
Pheromonal communication helps members of some species ...
avoid mating with members of other species (which wastes precious mating time) and avoid incest, which can produce genetically defective offspring and hence reproductive success.
Pheromones are detected by ...
specialized neural circuits in the olfactory system.
What are the two phases of metabolism?
absorptive and fasting
Provide information regarding the state of the system with respect to the variables being regulated.
feedback mechanisms
Homeostasis literally means ...
"standing still" (or, more accurately, "standing similarly").
The fasting phase is the phase during which ...
the body converts its short- and long-term stores into energy.
An optimal level a system strives to maintain.
Set Point
Glucose is a ...
simple sugar.
Provide the system with information regarding the state of the system with respect to set point.
feed-back mechanism
Turn off ingestive behavior.
satiety mechanisms
What are some of the common features of homeostatic processes?
Set point, feed-back mechanisms, corrective mechanisms, satiety mechancisms.
What activates the pancreas?
Hypothalamus
Biologically optimal level a system strives to maintain.
Set Point (or set points)
What type of mechanism restores a system to its set point when needed?
corrective mechanisms
Restore the system to its set point when needed.
corrective mechanisms
What turns off ingestive behavior?
satiety mechanisms
Eating is part of a complex ______ process.
homeostatic
A protein secreted by well-stocked fat cells which indicate, over the long run, when it is time to stop eating.
leptin
Based on the current definition of obesity, what percent of the adult population in the US is overweight?
About one-third, and the percentage is growing.
Feelings of hunger derive from dropping levels of ...
glucose and lipids in the bloodstream, which are detected in the liver and brain stem.
Satiety occurs through a number of mechanisms, including ___ and ___ but primarily through ...
tastes and smells


detection of nutrients in the stomach and intestines.
The nervous system has its own ____ detectors, located ...
glucose

on the "brain" side of the blood-brain barrier.
What are some external cues that influence eating?
Palatibility, time of day, and presence of other people.
Obesity is defined as ...
body weight 15 percent or more about the ideal for one's height and age.
Hormone indicating degree of hunger: a hormone produced by fat cells that indicates the degree of hunger to the hypothalamus of the brain (Encarta).
leptin
The nervous system, like the rest of the body, can not metabolize ____.
fat
Fetuses will develop into females unless ...
there is the presence of two kinds of hormones secreted in the third month of pregnancy.
What are the four phases of the sexual response cycle?
Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a condition in which ...
the adrenal glands secrete too much androgen, leading to masculinization of the genitals in females.
What common pattern did Masters and Johnson discover?
A common pattern of physiological changes that takes place in both women and men during sex called the sexual response cycle.
Organizational effects --
Hormones exert organizational effects on the circuitry, or "organization," of the brain and thereby influence sexual behavior.
Sex did not become a respectable area of scientific study until ...
Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues published two massive volumes on the sexual behavior of males and females.
Hormones influence sexual behavior through ...
both organizational effects, which influence the developing circuitry of the brain, and activational effects, in which hormones activate those circuits.
Sexual orientation refers to ...
the direction of a person's enduring sexual attraction: to members of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both.
In androgen insensitivity syndrome, a ...
genetic male develops female genitalia.
What broke down many of the Victorian taboos about discussing sexuality?
Psychoanalysis
Performance goals are ...
motives to achieve at a particular level, usually a socially defined standard, such as getting an A in a class.
Agency needs include motives such as ...
power, competence, achievement, autonomy, and self-esteem.
The desire to master the skill.
(what type of goals?)
Mastery goals
Social Motives
Attachment

Intimacy

Affiliation

(there may be more)
Two clusters of phychosocial needs pursuded cross-culturally are ...
relatedness and agency (achievement, autonomy, mastery, power, and other self-oriented goals).

Needs for relatedness include attachment, intimacy, and affiliation.
Mastery goals are ...
motives to increase one's competence, mastery, or skill.
What are the most biological of needs?
Hunger and Sex
The desire to avoid failure, particularly when it is publically observable.
(What type of goals?)
Performance-avoidance goals
The strength of a motive depends in part on ...
whether an appropriate stimulus presents itself.
The emphasis of performance goals is ...
on the outcome--on success or failure in meeting a standard.
The need for achievement is primarily ...
a learned motive, which numerous studies have linked to patterns of child rearing.
A stimulus by itself ...
never motivates behavior unless the person has acquired some motivational tendency toward it.
Performance goals, whether for approach or avoidance, are about ...
achieving a concrete outcome--obtaining success or avoiding failure.
The desire to meet a socially defined standard.
(What type of goals?)
Performance-approach goals
Achievement goals themselves appear to reflect a blend of at least three motives:
performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and mastery of goals.
The most biological needs are shaped by ___ and ___, and the most psychosocial motives draw on ___ ___.

And
culture and experience

innate tendencies
The peripheral nervous system controls ...
both muscle movements and autonomic responses such as racing heart and shortness of breath in the face of fear-eliciting stimuli (see Ch 2).
Performance-avoidance goals are linked to ...
punishment, negative reinforcement (avoidance of aversive consequences), and negative (unpleasant) emotions such as anxiety, guilt, shame, and sadness.
Emotion is ...
an evaluative repsonse (a positive or negative feeling) that typically includes some combination of physiological arousal, subjective experience, and behavioral or emotional expression.
William James asserted that we feel afraid because ...
we run.
According to William James, an emotion-inducing stuimulus elicits ...
visceral, or gut, reactions and voluntary behaviors such as running or gesturing.
The James-Lange theory states that ...
emotions orginate in peripheral nervous system responses that the central nervous system then interprets.
What provides the direction or goals of a motive?
Cognitive representations or thoughts.
Valence
(positive or negetive tone)

American Heritage Dictionary: 4. Psychology--The degree of attraction or aversion that an individual feels toward a specific object or event.
What provides the strength behind motives?
feelings
What is a synonym for emotion?
affect (pronounced w/the accent on the first syllable, as in apple)
Performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals are related to both ____ and ____.
operant conditioning (Chapter 5) and emotion.
Motivation typically requires both ...
cognition and some form of emotional energy or arousal.
Display rules--
patterns of emotional expression considered appropriate within their culture or subculture.