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65 Cards in this Set

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conversion hysteria
physical ailment without an apparent physical cause
medical approach to conversion hysteria
keep looking for a physical cause
Freud's approach to conversion hysteria
there is a psychological cause, and the cause is unconscious
how do we know Freud was right about conversion hysteria being psychological?
- glove anesthesia
- hypnosis (Mesmer)
What did the "talking cure" result in?
Freud took Breur's "talking cure" and created psychoanalysis
why study abnormal people to see what's up with normal ones?
psychological processes of abnormal and normal people are quite similar -> abnormal people are just exaggerated
psychoanalysis
the process in which the unconscious is made conscious
free association
say what pops into your head
physical determinism
Newton - everything physical has a cause and a consequence
psychological determinism
Freud - following Newton, if there are no random physical events, there are no random psychological events
resistances (during free association)
point at which people resist further associations -> behavioral manifestations of underlying psychological conflict
what happens when you overcome resistances during free association?
the following associations will reveal the underlying prorblem, which is either a sexual or aggressive anxiety-provoking desire
spatial model of human mentation
big room = unconscious
guard = gatekeeper
little room = conscious
how is anxiety important in the spatial model of human mentation?
anxiety is the determinant - anxiety-provoking thoughts are not allowed through the gatekeeper into conscious thought
respression
suppressing anxiety-causing thoughts so they don't bother you
neurosis
repressed desires are transformed for consciou expression
what's good and bad about neurosis
good = less anxious
bad = don't know what you want, don't get it, become frustrated
personality
the manner by which individuals transform repressed anxiety-causing desires into socially acceptable thoughts, feelings, and behavior
according to "Civilization and its Discontents" why do we repress our sexual/aggresive desires?
to preserve civilization
what is "normal" and "abnormal"?
normal = share a neurosis w/ everyone else
abnormal = 1% are psychotic, 99% just invent their own neurotic symptoms
what are the "big five" dimensions or personality?
extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience
the trait approach to personality
way of looking at differences among individuals by developing a standard set of qualities, or attributes, and then describing people in those terms
the social-cognitive approach to personality
traits are static and people/situations are not
Freud's psychodynamic approach to personality
human acts and thoughts are just the outer expression of a whole host of motives and desires that are unknown to the person himself, often derived from early childhood experiences
defense mechanisms:
displacement
a forbidden, repressed impulse is rechanneled into an acceptable expression
defense mechanisms:
reaction formation
the repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite
defense mechanisms:
rationalization
the person interprets her own feelings or actions in more acceptable terms
defense mechanisms:
projection
forbidden urges well up and are recognized, but the person attributes them to others
what are Freuds stages of psychosexual development?
oral, anal, phallic, genital
Oedipus complex
boy wants sex with mom, dad gets in the way, boy hates dad, then fears dad
The humanistic approach to personality
people want to become self-actualized and fulfilled
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
bottom = lower order physiological needs, safety needs are higher up, the need for attachment and love is still higher, and the desire for self-esteem is higher yet,
and self-actualization is at the top
psychopathology
the study of conditions that deviate from normal functioning and are considered mental illness
What was the ancient belief of the cause of mental illness?
demonic possession
What was the turning point at which people realized that mental illness can have biological causes?
discovered that general paresis was caused by an earlier infection of syphillis, treated with penicllin
is there a concordance of schizophrenia?
yes, it is likely genetic because if one twin is schizo, then the other is likely to be also
how long has there been mental illness?
since the beginning of recorded history
is our understanding of the causes of mental illness static?
no, it has changed over time and continues to change
how does one choose a particular method of treatment for mental illness?
by what one believes the cause of the illness to be
organic pathology approach to mental illness
physical causes get physical treatments
psychodynamic approach to mental illness
unresolved conflict (repressed desires transformed into neuroses)
three psychondynamic solutions to mental problems
- just do it (the thing you want and are repressing)
- stoic acceptance (suck it up)
- sublimation (convert problematic desire into socially acceptable behavior)
humanistic approach to mental illness
psychopathology is detachment from true thoughts and feelings -> help people self-actualize, live in the moment, have faith in others, be open to experience
existential approach to mental illness
difficulty coping with reality -> help people find meaning in their lives (cope with death, freedom, isolation)
generalized anxiety disorder
generally anxious/afraid all the time
panic disorder
anxious only sometimes -> have panic attacks
phobia
afraid of something specific, often irrationally
obsessive-compulsive disorder
obsessed with things, compulsive behavior
learning approach to mental illness
behavior is dysfunctional because of prior messed up learning
classical conditioning for treating mental illness (systematic desensitization)
- used for phobias
1) cause original response to become extinct
2) replace original response with a new one that involves pleasure rather than fear
instrumental conditioning for treating mental illness
- used for OCD
- use rewards to get somebody to give up what they're hoarding
cognitive approach to treating mental illness (maladaptive cognitions)
- used for depression
- fix problem by fixing beliefs -> "cognitive restructuring"
somatoform disorders
mental disorders manifested in physical body
hypochondriasis
think you're sick when you really aren't
dissociative disorders -> amnesia, fugue states
can't remember who you are/how you got where you are
dissociative identity disorder
multiple personality disorder
depression -- 3 explanations
1) biological: not enough serotonin
2) psychological: people have self-detrimental explanatory styles (internal - everything is my fault, global - i suck at everything, stable - things will suck forever)
3) sociocultural: effects of society (unrealistic standards of beauty, etc)
schizophrenia -- symptoms
- incoherent thinking
- delusions (elaborate, false beliefs)
- hallucinations (seeing/hearing stuff that isn't there)
- disturbance of affect (attribute things to the wrong causes)
- bizarre behavior
positive symptoms
those that involve what patients do, see and think that differ from "normal" people
negative symptoms
those that involve a lack of normal functioning
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
chemical mistake -> too much dopamine
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
neuroanatomical symptoms -> structural differences in brain structure
manic depression
bipolar -> highs and lows of mania and depression
borderline personality disorder
- generally women
- wildly fluctuating moods
- parasitic romantic relationships
- won't accept responsibility for relationships
- result of childhood abuse
antisocial personality disorder
- generally men
- sociopaths
- love to kill, hurt animals as kids
- no conscience, fear or guilt