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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
memory
capacity to retain and retrieve info; reconstructive process, remember complex info and alter it in ways that help us make sense of the material based on what we already know or think we know
source amnesia
inability to distinguish what you originally experienced from what you heard or were told about an event later
confabulation
confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened
explicit memory
conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information
implicit memory
unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions
priming
method for measuring implicit memory in which a person reads or listens to info and is later tested to see whether the info affects perforance on another type of task
relearning method
relearning info or a task that you have learned before, if you master it more quickly the second time around, you must be remembering something from the first time you learned the info or task
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
model of memory where knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units in a network, all operating in parallel
sensory register
memory system that accurately but very briefly registers sensory info before the info fades or moves into short-term memory
short-term memory
in three-box model of memory, limited capacity memory system involved in retention of info for brief periods; holds info from long-term memory for temporary use (when it is "recalled")
working memory
short-term memory plus what is retrieved from long-term memory used appropriately for a given task
long-term memory
in three-box model of memory, memory system involved in long-term storage of info

unlimited capacity, info organized and indexed
three-box model of memory
sensory register is transferred to short-term memory

it can then either be forgotten or transferred to long-term memory

long-term memory can then either be retrieved for short-term memory or retrieved directly from the sensory register

info that does not transfer out of sensory memory or short-term memory is assumed to be forgotten forever
procedural memories
memories for the performance of actions or skills ("knowing how")
declarative memories
memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that")

include semantic, and episodic memories
semantic memories
memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions
episodic memories
memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
serial-position effect
tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list
maintenance rehearsal
repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory
elaborative rehearsal
association of new info with already stored knowledge; anaylsis of new info to make it memorable
deep processing
encoding of info, processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
decay theory
theory that info in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed; it applies more to short-term memory than to long-term memory
retroactive interference
forgetting that occurs when RECENTLY learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored PREVIOUSLY
proactive interference
forgetting that occurs when PREVIOUSLY stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more RECENTLY learned material
cue-dependent forgetting
inability to retrieve info stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall
state-dependent memory
tendency to remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning or experience
repression
involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting info into the unconscious
effortful versus automatic encoding
effortful encoding: to retain info one might have to select main points, label concepts, or associate info w/ personal experiences or w/ material you already know

automatic encoding: takes place automatically w/o making deliberate effor to encode it