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26 Cards in this Set

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What is learning?
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience through interactions with the environment.
What is maturation?
changes due to biological causes.
Classical Conditioning
two sensations repeatedly experienced together became associated together.
unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that can elicit a response without any learning.
conditioned stimulus
a stimulus that comes to elicit responses as a result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response
a response that is similar or identical to the unconditioned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
Counterconditioning
the process of eliminating a classically conditioned response by pairing the CS with an US for a response that is stronger than the CR and that cannot occur at the same times as the CR.
operant conditioning
learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurence.
positive reinforcement
any consequence of behavior that leads to an increase in the probability of its occurence.
negative reinforcement
negative reinforcement occurs when (1) a behavior is followed by the removal or the avoidance of a negative event, and (2) the probability that the behavior will occur in the future increases as a result.
punishment
a negative consequence of a behavior, which leads to a decrease in the frequency of the behavior that produces it.
primary reinforcers
innate positive reinforcers that do not have to be acquired through learning.

*food, water, warmth, novel stimulation, physical activity, and sexual gratification.*
secondary reinforcers
learned positive reinforcers

*saying "good dog" each time you give it a treat. school grades, prrizes, money
schedule reinforcement
1. fixed ratio
2. variable ratio
3. fixed interval
4. variable interval
continuos reinforcement
positive reinforcement as if every response were always followed by a reinforcer.
shaping
a strategy of positevely reinforcing behaviors that are successively more similar to desired behaviors.
escape conditioning
operant conditioning in which the behavior is reinforced because it causes a negative event to cease (a form of negative reinforcement.)
avoidance conditioning
operant conditioning in which the behavior is reinforced because it prevents something negative from happening (a form of negative reinforcement).
stimulus discrimination
the tendency for responses to occur more often in the presence of one stimulus than others.

*school children act different when teacher is in the room compared to not in the room, clean up when you know someone is coming over*
stimulus generalization
the tendency for similar stimuli to elicit the same response.
extinction
the process of unlearning a learned response because of the removal of the original sourse or learning.
spontaneous recovery
a temporary increase in the strength of a conditioned response, which is likely to occur during extinction after the passage of time.
cognitive mapping
an inferred mental awareness of the structure of a physical spaces or related elements.
What part of the brain is important for cognitive mapping to occur?
hypothamlus
learning set
improvement in the rate of learning to solve new problems through practice solving similar problems.
vicarious reinforcemnt
observed reinforcement of the behavior of a model, which also increases the probability of the same behavior in the observer.