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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hindsight Bias
I knew it all along....after seeing what is true it seems obvious
Curious Skepticism
what do you mean? how do you know? to beleive with certainty we must begin by doubting
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept agreements and conclusions, but rather examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction often implied by a theory
Operational defintition
a statements of the procedures used to define research variables...for example: intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
repeating the essence of a research study; usually with different paticipants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding exteneds to other participants and circumstances
scientific method
make observations, form theories, then refine theories. A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answer. In the end a theory is useful if it 1) effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observations and 2)implies clear predictions that anyone can sue to check the theory or to derive practical applications
Case study
study of one individual in depth in hope of revealing things true of us all. can be mislead by anecdotal cases
survey method
looks at many caes in less depth. ASks people to report behavior. ((Wording of questions can be a delicate procedure))
fakse consensus effect
the tendency to oversetimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (ex: vegetarians)
whole group you want to study and describe (except for national studies does not refer to a countries pop.)
random samples
where everyone in the group has an equal chance of participating.
naturalistic observations
oberving and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control it. like case and survery methods does not explain behavior, describes it
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of a relationship, reveals how closeley two things vary and thus how well one predicts the other.
graphs that illustrate correlations, cakked scatterplots b/c each point plots the value of two variables. negative means nothing of strength just that it is an inverse relationship
illusionary correlation
a perceived nonexistent correlation; the perception of a relationship where none exists, when we beleive there is a correltaion, we pull up instances that prove that.
a research method in which the investigator manipulates one of mroe factors(independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavioror mental process (dependent variable) by random assignemtn of participants controls other relevant factors. focus by 1) manipulating the factors of interest 2) holding constant (controlling) other factors
double-blind procedure
uninformed of whether participant is getting a placebo or the real thing
placebo effect
just thinking one is getting a treatment makes them get better
experimental condition
created by double-blind contrasted by control condition
control condition
serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
randomly assigning
by chance minimizing preexisting differences - the two groups should be otherwise identical. roughly equalizes in age, attitudes, etc.
independent variable
varied independantly to observe change of something else
dependent variable
observed to see if it changes or not form the change of the indepdendent variable
mode: most frequently occuri8ng score

mean: average score

median: the middle score (always consider is atypical scores could be affecting it)
the gap btwn the lowest and highest scores
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statitical significance
a statitical stement of how likely it is that an obstained result occured by chance indicates liklihood not the importance of the result
shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next
questions scientific objectivity. says scientific concepts are socially constructed fictions. (ex. a person commiting a crime of passion does not pause to think of consequences)