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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sounds that resemble words =
reinforced
Which brain area is dedicated specifically to language?
LAD (language acquisition device)
What are the 4 components of language?
phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
What happens in the Nervous system when there is a threat?
increased epinephrine and cortisol
Low doses of epinephrine do what?
Enhance memory
High doses of epinephrine?
inhibit memory
Where in the brain does epinephrine have an effect?
in the amygdala
What creates more glucose
Norepinephrine
the more glucose in the brain?
The better fueled the brain
What memory is used for facts and general concepts
Ex: FDR was the 32nd president
Semantic
Priming occurs in the ?
Cerebellum
What does the modulation of Memory Storage say?
Emotional events are more memorable than neutral events
What is the process of retaining information in memory?
Storage
What is the process of digging information out of memory?
Retrieval
3types of memory structures/
sensory, short-term and long term memory stores
WHat is the smallest unit of meaning in language?
Morpheme
What happens when neural connections are weakened to the point where they are no longer functional?
Decay
WHat prevents the digging out of stored information?
Interference
Memories may be difficult to recall because?
Stored information may not match later retrieval cues
an unusually vivid and accurate memory of a dramatic event
Flashbulb Memory
Memories of the meanings of words (a pine is an evergreen tree with long needles)
concepts (heat moves from a warmer object to a cooler one) and general facts about the world
Semantic Memories
Memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance (when, where, and how)/ provide a context
Episodic Memories
Which lobe plays a key role in looking up stored information?
The frontal Lobe
Memory that can be retrieved at will/ consciously thinking about a previous experience (represented in STM)
Explicit Memory
Memories that cannot be voluntarily called to mind, but nevertheless influence behavior or thinking
implicit
what effect says that the first and last items studied are more easily then those in the middle?
Serial position effect
What shows evidence that STM and LTM rely on distinct stores?
A: Serial position effect and B:recency effect
the frontal lobes and perceptual areas of the brain are activated during?
tasks involving working memory
What factors influence whether or not info moves into LTM
A) duration of rehearsal
B) massed vs. spaced rehearsal
C) nature of material being rehearsed
font size or color/ if word is long or short is
shallow level of processing
does word rhyme with things/acoustical
mid-level processin
when we try to encode the meaning of a word and the words synonyms
deep level of processing
serial position effect over time
immediate recall: last items best
later recall: only 1st items recalled well
blocking LTP (long term potentiation) does what?
disrupts memory formation
higher levels of cortisol=
higher levels of stress
the inability to form new memories following trauma?
anterograde amnesia
if you block norepinephrine in the amygdala?
you lose enhancing effect of ephinephrine
Implicit memories are made up of 5 major types
classically conditioned responses, memories formed through nonassociative learning, habits, skills, and priming
What can make information easier to remember?
A: organizing information
B: hierarchical organization
What is it called when info is better remembered if recall is attempted in the same psychological state as when the info. was first encoded?
state-dependent retrieval
What do you call interference by something already learned that makes it difficult to learn
something new?For example, if you were to reorganize your kitchen, you would search in the places your cooking object was before the reorganization (out of habit so to speak) as opposed to where it is currently.
Proactive Interference
Amnesia that disrupts previous memories?
Retrograde Amnesia
amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents new learning?
Anterograde amnesia
The basic building block of speech sound?
Phoneme
____ area= speech comprehension
Wernicke's area
involved in syntax to produce and understand sentences?
Broca's Area
The structure of the sounds of the words in a language?
phonology
the sounds of any language are built up from sets of
phonemes
Facial expressions are a type of ?
Behavioral expression
Physiological emotion shows activity in the?
CNS & PNS
Cognitive memory deals with?
Memory and perceptions
subjective emotion is?
Your experience
What are the 6 basic emotions?
surprise happiness fear disgust anger and sadnessq
A person will recognize emotions from what group best?
their own racial group
clinically depressed individuals have what kind of activity in the frontal lobe?
Reduced
Is the amygdala activatd for positive and negative emotions?
Both BUT IT IS MORE IMPORTANT FOR NEGATIVE EMOTION
Negative emotions show?
Right frontal lobe activity
What theory says that subjective experience of emotion occurs after body has physiological reaction?
Common sense says, we lose our fortune, are sorry and weep; we meet a bear, are frightened and run; we are insulted by a rival, and angry and strike. The hypothesis here to be defended says that this order of sequence is incorrect ... and that the more rational statement is that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble ... Without the bodily states following on the perception, the latter would be purely cognitive in form, pale, colorless, destitute of emotional warmth. We might then see the bear, and judge it best to run, receive the insult and deem it right to strike, but we should not actually feel afraid or angry
James-Lange Theory
This emotion causes increased heart rate and skin temperature?
anger
This emotion causes increased heart rate and decreased skin temperature?
Fear
Emotions are present before_____
physiological response
ani-anxiety drugs do not
block emotions
What theory says that emotions result from interpretation of bodily sensations given the context or situation
Cognitive Theory
What theory says that emotion occurs simultaneously with physiological responses
Cannon Bard Theory
What theory says that we are motivated by belongingness and a sense of self-esteem and once basic needs are met you can pursue other needs
Maslow's Theory of Motivation
What gene regulates the release of leptin(hormone) from fat cells?
Ob gene
What triggers feeding a lesion reduces hunger to the point of starvation
Lateral hypothalamus
the brain monitors what 2 food molecules in the blood?
Glucose and fatty acids
what hypothesis says that we feel emotions in part based on facbial muscle feedback
the facial feedback hypothesis
what theory is motivated to maintain intermediate level of arousal?
ARousal Theory
what law says that we perform best when we are moderately aroused?
Yerkes-Dodson law
motivation induced by the reinforcer itself?
incentive motivation
When blood glucose is low, liver sends signals to ____ to stimulate eating
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)
High levels of glucose binding does what to eating?
Terminates it
When we are biased by the way an issue is worded it is called?
Framing
the increased memory for the first few stimuli
primacy effect
the increased memory for the last few stimuli
recency effect
neurons that fire together wire together, enhancement in the efficacy of the synapse between 2 neurons/ it stimulates teh sending neuron in the hippocampus causing Ap in receiving neuron. Potentiation of AP with experience (like after you learn material its easier the 2nd time
Long term potentiation
What are the structural changes associated with LTP:
growth of new post-synaptic receptors increases in NTS synthesis increased # of synapses
drugs that block NMDA receptors (which bind glutamate and glycine-excitatory NTS) block what
LTP
LTP typically lasts for how long?
hours to months
after we learn something- the brain continues to process and then store it but if something happens then you forget it.. "gelling" or "cementing" of a memory if process is disrupted, failure to store a memory = retrograde amnesia: forgetting of info or events prior to trauma
Consolidation Theory
last in ....first out. typically the person forgets what happened just before a car accident or just they got hit on the head.
Temporal Gradient
amnesia does not set in immediately
delayed onset
when you mentaly rearrange letters to see whether you can form words you are using?
STM
When you see something you want to remember (such as the #s on a liscense plate of a car involved in an accident) you can hold this information in STM, by what?
rehearsal: repeating the info over and over
if it is not continually active it is lost
dynamic memory
a certain level of difficulty stimulates processing and increased processing improves memory
"desireable difficulty"
the way a language conveys meaning
metaphor
sarcasm
Pragmatics
if a patient is suffering through trauma what drug could you give them to reduce the affect of the trauma?
Propalol (xanax)
what kind of blockers eliminate the enhancement of emotional learning?
B-adrenergic blockers
words can influence how people tend to answer but also articles like THe and A
memory distortion
smallest contrastive sound unit in a language (consonants carry more information then vowel ____)
phonemes
prefixes and suffixes are types of?
Morphemes
rules about order of words (grammar) adjective comes before noun example THe REd House
syntax
the way a language conveys meaning/metaphor/sarcasm
Pragmatics
a set of steps that if followed methodically will gurantee the solution to a problem
Algorithm
A new way to look at a problem that implies the solution
Insight
A strategy that does not guarantee the solution to a problem but provides a likely shortcut to it
Heuristics
an innate mechanism hypothesized by Chomsky that contains the grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language acquisition
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
tendency to seek information that confirms what we already believe, ignoring disconfirming info
Confirmation Bias
When we use strategy that has worked in the past
Mental Set
inability to see problem from new angle get stuck on wrong solution if it worked in the past
Fixation
only think of things in terms of their usual functions (matchbox mount to the wall put the candle in)
Functional Fixedness
if something shares many features with a prototype,it must be a member of that category (causes us to ignore logic & over generalize)
Representativeness Heuristic
judging frequency or likelihood of an event based on availability of that event in memory (shark attack/plane crash)
Availability Heuristic
WE judge a conclusion as illogical more easily if it is counter to our beliefs
Belief bias
a motivation induced by biological drive state
Primary Motivation
a motivation induced by the reinforcer itself
Incentive Motivation
Amygdala stimulates ___ in the SNS
hypothalamus
A lesion in the lateral hypothalamus does what?
reduces hunger to the point of starvation
What determines satiety?
stomach sends signals to the ventromedial hypothalamus via the vagus nerve
If you switch foods your opiods do what?
turn on again
When you eat good tasting fod???
there is a release of opiods and increased activity in lateral hypothalamus
what converts protein to glucose (sugar)
cortisol