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13 Cards in this Set

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The rate at which the motor milestones are achieved is delayed when an infant is subjected to extrememly unfavorable environmental conditions, such as severe malnutrition or illness. And experience that restrict infants' freedom of movement, including cultural practices such as strapping babies to "papoose" boards, also delay motor development. However, once babies are free to move about, they quickly acquire the same level of motor skill development as others their age who have not been restricted.
The effect of experience on motor development.
Habituation is a decrease in response or attention to a stimulus as an infant becomes accustomed to it. When presented with a new stimulus, infants respond with a general quieting, their heart rate slows, and they fixate on the stimulus. But when they becomed accustomed to the stimulus, they stop responding that is, they habituate to it.
Habituation in infants & what it shows.
-"Easy" children - 40% of the group - have generally pleasant moods, were adaptable, approached new situations and people positively, and established regular sleeping, eating, and elimination patterns.

-"Difficult" children - 10% of the group - have generally unpleasant moods, reacted negatively to new situations and people, were intense in their emotional reactions, and showed irregularity of bodily functions.

-"Slow to warm up" - 15% of the group - tended to withdraw, were slow to adapt, and were prone to negative emotional states

- The remaining 35% of the children studied were too inconsistent to catagorize.

- Children who were impulsive become aggressive and dangerous

- Over controlled children become more prone to social withdrawal
Infant temperaments ( & predictions for later life)
Infant monkeys were placed with a cloth mother for the first 5 1/2 months of life, their attachment was so strong that it persisted even after an 18-month separation. Their attachment to the cloth mother was almost identical to the attachment normal monkeys have to their real mothers. Harlow concluded that contact comfort might be sufficient for attachment, but something more was required for normal emotional development and active affection and responsiveness.
Harlow's studies of attachments in monkeys.
- Secure (65%) distress when seperated, happy when mother returns.

- Avoidant (20%) - no distress when mother leaves, indifferent when mother returns.

- Resistant - (10%) - cling to mother before she leaves, and angry when she returns

-Disorganized/ Disoriented - (5%) - show distress when mother leaves and alternates between happiness, indifference, and anger when mother returns.
Four patterns of attachment.
Children whose fathers exhibit antisocial behavior are most likely to demonstrate such behavior themselves.
Effects of antisocial fathers
A mother may instill a sense of caution in a child, but a father may encourage the child (espcially if male) to be more daring
How fathers (vs. mothers) play with their children.
- Assimilation - mental process by which new objects, events, experiences, and information are incorporated into existing schemes.

- Accomodation - mental process of modifying schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, and information.
Piaget : assimilation vs. accomodation
- object permanence - realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight

- centration - preoperational child's tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus.

- reversibility - face that when only the appearance of a substnce has been changed, it can be returned to its original state

- conservation - understanding that a given quantity of matter remins the sme if it is arranged or changed in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
The milestons/bridges between Piaget's stages.
No. Not only do many people fail to show formal operational thinking, but those who do obtain it usually apply it only in those areas and only in those areas in which they are most proficient.
Whether formal operational thought is universal
- naive idealism - not very practical

- personal focus - exaggerate uniqueness

- adolescent egocentrism - self as center
Characteristics of teenage thinking
- Authoritarian: arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority. Effect: children are withdrwn, anxious, unhappy

-Authoritative - set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enfore limits, nd encourage open communication nd independence. Effect: mature, happy, self-reliant, responsible

- Permissive - make few rules or demands and usually do not enforce those that are made; they allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior. Effect: immature, impulsive, less self-control
Baumrind's 3 parenting styles (& their effects)
TV can shape the child's view of the world
Effects of TV watching