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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
iconic memory
seeing memory
echoic memory
auditory memory
short term memory
lasts about 5 seconds. 7+-2 (5-9) chunks of info
long term memory
permanent memories, immense and limits untapped
automatic
non-conscious encoding in brainstem
effortful
encoding that requires attention and effort (cortex)
episodic
for events (hippocampus)
semantic
for language/knowledge (cortex)
procedural
for motor performance (cerebellum)
3 steps of forming memories
encode
storage
retrieveal
factors part of encoding
attention
organization
meaning
repetition
storage of memories
stored in various parts of brain including frontal and temportal cortexes
serotonin and memory?
serotonin release implicated memory formation
LTP (long term potentiation)
increse firing of neurons with repeated use
NMDA
protein that trains the brain cells to repeat patterns
adrenlin
helps with memories
procactive interference
prior learning disrupts new learning
retroactive interference
new learning disrupts prior learning
recall memory
retrieve with few cues
(ex. essay exam generate info from memory)
recodnition memory
retrieve with cues
(ex. multiple choice)
what causes forgetting
poor encoding
transfer interfernce
storage decay
to help reduce forgetting
rehearse
think about material and relate to experience
use mnemonic and retieval cues
minimize interence to storage process
what is intelligence
capacity to learn from experieince, to adapt, to reason, to solve problems
uni-demensional intelligence
1:general intelligence
3:analytical, creativity, practical
7:language, math, muscial, spatial, kinethetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal
what are the intelligence types of tests
aptitude
achievement
personality
what is psychometric
data regarding effectiveness and utility of tests
norms and standardes of tests
scores and procedures for comparison and interpretation
reliability of tests
is the test consistent over time
validity
does the test measure what it purports to measure
what is the heritability of intelligence
.50
what is EQ
emotional intelligence, Common sense
what is motivation
the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
what are the motivational theories?
behavioral
biological
psychodynamic
evolutionary
humanistic
what does the behavioral theory of motivation believe?
That one can produce desired outcomes, versus the belief that outcomes are forces from the outside
what does the biological and psychodynamic theories for motivation believe?
behavior is driven by biological systems, an humans are driven by uncounscious needs
set point theory
eating/activity level is motivated by body's attempt to maintain its pre-set optimal body weight
evolutionary theory of motivation
driven to pass on genes
humanistic
driven by the need to self-actualization.
Maslow's hierarchy-
bottom up--
physiological
safety
belonging/love
esteem
self-actualization
what is emotion
response of an organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
types of emotion?
basic and complex
basic is happy, sad, suprise, anger, etc.
complex is shame, guilt, love, hate, pride
james-lange theory of emotion
cognitive labeling of emotion follows from emotion-specific arousal (see a bear, run, feel afraid)
cannon-bard theory of emotion
cognitive labeling of emotion occurs simultaneously with arousal (see a bear, run and be scared)
two-factor theory of emotion
cognitive labeling of emotion follows generalized arousal and requires environmental cures (look for cues, bear, label emotion and act on emotion)
what are the theories of aggression?
biological
learning
congitive
ethological
what does the biological theory of aggression mean?
hormonal, and or brain mechanizms cause aggression
eg-castration studies with testostorone
what does the learning theory of aggression mean?
not inborn, learned aggression
what does the conginitive theory of aggression mean?
goal driven creatures, frustration driven.
eg-road rage
what does the ethological theory of aggression mean?
it is adaptive, used to protect self and triggered by stimuli such as-
threats
crowding
pain
deprivation
strangers
what is aggression?
verbal or non-verbal behavior intended to hurt another
what is instrumental aggression?
with purpose
what is non-instrumental aggression?
aggression just to be aggressive
what is happiness?
emotional state characterized by feelings of pleasure, satisfaction and gratification
what is the biological theory of happiness?
activity in frontal cortex correleated with stable feelings of subjective well being
under the cognitve theory of happiness, what is adaptation level?
happiness relative to prior experience
under the cognitve theory of happiness, what is relative deprivation?
happines relative to what others have