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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
subfield that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals
social psychology
* attributing a behavior to some external cause or factor operating within the situation; external attribution

*attributing a behavior to some internal cause, such as a personal trait, motive, or attitude; an internal attribution
situational attribution, dispositional attribution
tendency to attribute one's successes to dispositional causes and one's failures to situational causes
self-serving bias
proximity, mere-exposure, moods and emotions
reasons for attraction
Evolutionary pyschologists suggest that this cross-cultural similarity is because of a tendency, shaped by natural selection, to look for indicators of health in potential mates.
how different cultures compares on ideas about physical attractiveness
tendency to assume that a person has generally positive or negative traits as a result of observing one major positive or negative trait
halo effect
men prefer to mate with beautiful young women, whereas women prefer to mate with men who have resources and social status.
Gender differences in mate selection
* changing or adopting a behavior or an attitude in order to be consistent with the social norms of a group or the expectations of other people

* acting is accordance with the wishes, suggestions, or direct requests of other people

* a person does exactly what he or she is told to do
Conformity vs. compliance vs. obedience
the presence of another person who refused to go along gave many of the participants the courage to defy authority
common finding in Asch's and Milgram's studies
* strategy designed to gain a favorable response to a small request at first, with the intent of making the person more likely to agree later to a larger request

*strategy in which someone makes a large, unreasonable request with the expectation that the person will refuse but will be more likely to respond favorably to a smaller request later

*strategy in which someone makes a very attractive initial offer to get a person to commit to an action and then makes the terms less favorable
compliance techniques
any positive or negative effect on performance that can be attributed to the presence of others, either as an audience or as co-actors
social facilitation
*tendency of members of a group, after group discussion, to shift toward a more extreme position in whatever direction the group was leaning initially

*tendency for members of a tightly knit group to be more concerned with preserving group solidarity and uniformity than with objectively evaluating all alternatives in decision making
group polarization vs. groupthink
1) cognitive- thoughts and beliefs about the attitudinal object
2) emotional- made up of feelings toward the attitudinal object
3) behavioral- predispositions concerning actions toward the attitudinal object
attitudes (3 components)
older adults are more likely to change their attitudes than are middle-aged adults
attitude change in middle-aged vs. older adults
unpleasant state that can occur when people become aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior
cognitive dissonance
1) source of communication
2) the audience
3) the message
4) the medium
four elements of persuasion
social factor that affects prosocial behavior: As the number of bystandars at the emergency increases, the probability that the victim will receive help decreases, and the help, if given, is likely to be delayed.
bystander effect