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240 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a distinctive pattern of beh, thoughts, motives and emotions that are consistent in an individual over time
long term disposition to beh in paticular ways in a variety of situations
Cattel's Theory of personality
dev. 16 patterality factors
ie: reserved-outgoing, relaxed-tense, trusting-suspicious
McRae and Costa
Big Five: OCEAN
Openness Conscientiousness
psychodynamic theory
focus on influences of early childhood
sex and agressive urges
impulses dominated by pleasure and avoid pain
voice of reason
moral component of personality: ridid standards
defense mechanisms
responses to anxiety which is caused by internal conflicts: attempt to reduce distress and anxiety

Displacement, rationalization and denial
oedipus complex
like mom: fear dad b/c dad castrates boy = grow up to be like dad
alder: individual psychology
stresses motivation for superiority
inferiority complex
everyone must overcome feelings of weakness incomparsion to competent adults
efforts made ot dev one's own abilities in responose to inferiorities
attempt to "conceal" one's own feelings of inferiority
reciporcal determinism
reinforcement history and cognative influences beh.

see what we expect

place ourselves in places which will confirm our beliefs
belief you can set our to accomplish goals from 4 sources:

1. mastry new skills
2. successful and competent roll models
3. positive feedback and encouragement
4. awareness of feelings/manage responses
internal locus of control
peol responsible to what happens to them
external locus of control
people's causes are controlled by luck, fate or other people
humanistic perspective
focus on inner-excriences on personality and dev

freedom and opttimistic view of human nature
maslow's hierarchy of needs
goal of humans is to e self-actulized: internal drive toward personal growth
Carl Rogers
accepts self-actualized tendency: explores individuals who do and dont fx well
getting reinforcement from others
sense of self and person are consistent it allows to fx
sense of self/person conflict`
unconditional positive regard
attempt to resolve conflict: accept one may have acted badly and still be a good person
personality "types"
body types linked w/personality charactistics
round, soft (santa) = tolerant, calm, need affection
muscular, upright = adventerous, less emotional
thin, delectic =
shy, self-conscious
peer relations
area for exerciting indep. from adult controll

help translate and establish trends and beh codes

provide emotional support
certain body parts grow at diff speeds, leading to lack of proportion
early maturing males
positive self concepts
early maturing females
greater depress, anxiety and eating dissorders
current trends
less dating, more group hang outs

girls getting period eariler and eariler
adolescent egocentricism
way of thinking the work is focued on themselves
imaginary audience
belief that everyone in environment is concerned w/beh of him/her
personal fable
view himself as somehow unique/heroic (you will be a rock star, not them0
w/rents mostly occurs w/chores and dress style, not sex/drugs
storm and stress
today's adolscences more similar to rents
false sense that he/she cannot be harmed
fx of peers in adolescence
role models
group belonging
encourage socially and beh
dev theories as stage theories
individuals must progess through stages in a particular order. what you can do in 1, is different that what you can do in another
how to fit new info into present system of knowledge
existing structures dont fit so child must dev. new shemas
learn through concrete motor actions
2-7 yrs
action oriented
flaws of preoperational thinking:
focus on one aspect of problem and neglact others
inability to reverse sitch
thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another's point of view
Concrete Operations
7-11 yrs
begin to see cause and effect
formal operations
begin to see abstract reasoning
theory of lifespan dev
believes each stage involves psychosocial crisis. personality is determined by these stages
heteronomous morality
either right or wrong
autonomous morality
7+ yrs
one is subject to his/hers own laws
lifespan issues in dev
more productive lifespans= more career shifts
fluid intelligence
basic info processing skills: memory and speed
crystallized intelligence
application of knowledge
=stable w/age
ways to promote healthy aging
-better health beh
-stay active physicall and psych
-positive attitude
-find faith
-less sun exposure
-less smoking/drinking
any circustance that threatens
psyiological and psychological componets
persuit of a good is pervented
two positives competeing and incompattible goals occur
approach-approach conflicts
a choice must be made btw two desired goals = least stress
avoidance-avoidance conflicts
choice must be made btw two unattractive goals
approach-avoidance conflicts
choich must be made about to achieve a goal which has both pos and neg attrubites
any notable diff in one's life which requires adaption both pos and neg life change can be stessful
Holmes and Rahe social readjustment scale
measures great changes and give them a rating of how much stress it can cause: death of spose is 1
expectation on beh in particular way
body releases hormones, sympathic nervous system activated
body in "high alert"
greater psych vunerability to stress
"daily hassles"
sum of total daily activities you does each day = great stress
stradegy used to buffer against stress
displaced agression
harmful acts to one who is not actually the true object of hostitility (dad kicking dog)
release of emotional tension
compensate for deprived feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area (eating)
constructive coping strategies
healthy efforts to deal w/stress making more resistant stressor
positive outlook = handle stress better
social supports
presence of social support proovides adaptive coping from pressure
sense of self-efficacy
took to respond to strssors and feelings of being stressed
Type A personalities
competive, impatient and more prone to agression
2x greater risk of disease
Type B personalities
more relaxed, easy going and less quick to anger
stress reducers
therapeutic interventions
pets and plants
post-traumatic stress disorder
caused from major tramatic event =

less trust
less future oriented
emotionally numb
child abuse
non-accidental physical attack on a child by indiv. caring for them
child neglect
absence of adequate social emotional and physical care
cycle of violence
findings that those who are abused are at a great risk of abusing
mental disorder
any beh state that causes distress or suffering
legal standards
wheather or not a person is in control of beh and aware of the consequences of actions
standard book for all disorders; provides descriptions and criteria for diagnosis
sever impairment with social interactions and communication
Asperger's Syndrome
significant social impairment
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; adhd
inattation, impulsity, hyperactivity; genetic, males, cure is ritilin
Conduct Disorder
violate social norm, crulty to animals, precursor to sociopath
Tourette's Syndrome
mult. motor and 1+ ticks, onset before age 18
Generalized anxiety disorder
constant feeling of anxiety and worry, restlessness, diff. concentrating, sleep distrubence
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
anxiety from particular events, reliving events in dreams, increased phiosogical arousal
panic disorder
reoccuring attacks of intense fear/panic, trembling, shaking, dizzy, chest pain, sweaty, hot/cold flash...etc
social phobias
fear of sitch where other people will observe them
fear of being alone in public places, where chance of helplessness = dont leave home
fear of thunder and lightning
Fear of peanut butter sticking to roof of mouth
fear of long words
a recurrent, persistent and unwished for thought
repetive retualized beh in wich people feel a lack of control
sadness, inactivity and feeling of helplessness, genetic
increased energy, great plans, faulty thinking, impulsive beh, outbursts of anger
cycle through depression and mania, take Lithiemum, problems with compliance
personality disorders
rigid, maladaptive traits, that cause great distress or lead to an inability to get along w/others
Paranoid Personality disorder
suspecious, paranoid, argumenative, looking out for trickery, blame others
schizoid personality disorder
have very few friends, indifferent to praise or critism, show no warmth
sociopathic personality disorder
like to break rules, gladly take advantage of people, intelligent, lacks remorse, appear friendly
schizotypal personality disorder
big beh patterns, usues unusual words
borderline personality disorder
stable patterns of unstable relationship, splitting: good/bad, quick to anger, impulsity
histrionic personality disorder
overly dramic, everything is a trama, seductive, dependent on others
Narcissistic personality disorder
sense of privlidge, feels special, exprects favors from others
compulsive personality disorder
perfectionist, preoccupied w/details, rules are essential, particular, serious and formal, work gives pleasure
passive-aggressive personality disorder
individuality expressing anger by "forgetting" or being stubborn. Procrastionation, can't admit to anger, habitually late
condition involving distorted perception of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life. 17-25 years old, genetic
Positive symptoms
hallucenations, hightened sensory awareness, disorganizing speech and beh
negative symptoms
poveryt of speech, emotional flatness, loss of motivation, social withdrawl, impaired attention
dissociative disorders
beh and identity split off development b/c tramatic event
cannot remember personal info
fugue state
no concept of slef, can take on a whole new idenity
dissociative identity disorder (mult. personality disorder)
appearence of 2+ identities within one person
dev psych
universal aspects of lifespan dev. from conception through death
head to feet
center moving outward
germinal phase
embryonic stage
head, neck and face; buds for limbs form and grow; major organs and digestive system differentiate; heartbeat beings
fetal stage
see notes
harmful toxins that affect dev resulting in defect, damage or anomoly
drugs or chemicals
thalidomide: for moring sickness (missing limbs)
prolong stress linked w/prematurity and low bw
increased fetal activity; low bw; increased chance of sids
low bw; distribed sleep in newborns
premature; low bw; tremulous behavior; poor sleep; poor sucking and feeding; risk of sids
"crack baby"; premature size/weight; high pitched crying; respitory problems; withdrawn symptoms
abuse of mult. substances likely
leading teratogen in us; most common cause of retardation
fetal alcohol syndrome
microcephaly; brain and heart damage; slow growth; head and face abnormabilities

poor impulse control; poor attention; overactivity
infant vision
intact, fx, focus 7-9 inches, preference for human faces
fetus can hear sounds around 6 months, recognizes mom's voice
taste and smell
prefer sweets
heat, cold, pressure and pain present at birth
inbor, auto response to particular form of stimulation
rooting reflex
survival value, stroke cheek and baby will turn head toward stimulation
stepping reflex
basis for complex motor skills, w/bare feet touching floor, infants mimic a stepping response; disappears around 2 months
sucking reflex
place a finger in mouth and baby will suck, permits feeding
eyeblink reflex
shine a light and baby will blink; protects for strong stimulation
babinski reflex
run finger along foot and baby curls toes. if doesn't=nerological problems
extra credit
moro reflex: startle reflex
gross and fine motor dev
individual differences exist, normative expectations for these skill and abilities often called milestones (see notes)
gender differences
boys ahead of girls in force and power; girls ahead in fine motor and gross motor skills which involve good balance
relatively constnt basic disposition which is inherent in a person that underlies and modulates his beh
thomas and chess
3 basic temperaments for infants: difficult, slow to warm, and easy
10%; often wails and are negative in new sitcuation; eat and sleep irr
slow to warm
15%; often inactive; adapt slowly and can be withdrawn and show neg mood
40% cheerful, adaptable and easily established routines
goodness of fit
match between the characteristics of infant and his family is critical to development; some are better matches than others
key w/temperament
interaction between genetics and environment
affectional bond between an infant and caretaker
separation anxiety
emotional upset when mom leaves
initial attachment
can occur simulataniously w/mom and someone else; # of child attachment can increase rapidly
stranger anxiety
6-7 months - 18 months; if stranger approaches infant becomes upset and afraid
Ainsworth attachment patterns
Securely attached
60%; child use rents as safe base to explore; absent = child may not cry, but shows reaction; reunion = child seeks contact
Avoidant attachment
20%; unresponsive to rent when present; no distress when rent leaves; react to stranger is similar as to rent; slow to greet rent
Resistant attachment
10-15%; seeks closeness w/rent; fail to explore; reunion = display of anger and resistant behaviore cannot be comforted
disorganized attachment
5%; greatest amount of insurity; in reunion = show disorganized, confused beh; seem confused, glaed and spacy; mom are more avoidant and inconsistent w/lack of sensituality to infant's needs
Baumrind's parenting styles; authoritarian
strong, controlling rents; demand obedience; forceful. kids do pporly sociely and academically; low self esteem
murturant w/little control; few demands and limits. kids are often immature and irresponsiblt and acadomacually unmotivated
set high, but responable expectations; teach how to set, but reach goals; gives emotional support, promote communication. kids become independent, good slef control and self esteem. do better in school
believe should be no power disadvantage in families; gives and equal say, emphasize humanitarian goals over achievement; effects less clear, but better for females
psychotropic meds
alters bio chem of brain
for adhd:
for anxiety
for depression
prozac, zoloft, clexa
for bipolar
lesion problematic areas of brain to eliminate disruptive beh
electroconvolsive theorpy (ECT)
shock therapy; beneficial to those w/severs depressions which are not responsive to neds/therapy; can lead to memory loss; unsure how it works
based on freudian principles, believing in impact of early childhood years
use free association
saying what ever comes to mind
dev relationship w/therapist based on other people in one's life; goal to uncover ucs conflicts to lower stress caused by guilt
psycitodynamics therapies
lookds at unconsis conflicts; defense mechanisms and symptoms resulting in a broader manner than freud; less free association
systematic desensitization
step by step precess of eimination frears. uses counter conditioning pair relaxation thechniques w/feared sitch
aversion therapy
substitutes punishment for reinforcements of bad habit; antabuse for alcoholics, shock for pedaphiles
immersion into the feared sitch as an intervention to lower fear
humanistic therapies
belief that people come to you and need to be self-altualized UC acceptance. help build self esteem and feelings of acceptance: unconditional love
cognitive therapies
help identify beliefs and expectations which maintain problems and conflicts. challentes distortions in thinking
family/couple therapy
focus on dynamics in family as a system w/different rules, roles and motivation
treat each person...
as integral to raise system
change one part of the system..
and the whole system needs to adapt
group therapy
people w/similar or diffrent problems come together to provide support and strategies
psychotherapy outcome research
various therapies see similar success rates through though this is challenged statistically
diff beliefs that some therapies do better for some disorders
bonus point
Mr. Williams = experimenter
Mr. Wallace = confederate subject
social psych
examines the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel and behave.
a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a person, object or concept
Attitude Strength:
the durability or impact of an attitude
: if it lasts over time
if it impacts behavior or thoughts
Initial Impressions
initial perceptions make a difference; and have shown strong effects
Asch’s study
found that a person presented with positive traits first was found to be more sociable and happier
social influence
the presence of others energizes performance (Triplett)
social norms
shared expectations about thoughts, feelings and behavior; can vary by time and place; culturally sensitive
social role
a set of norms which characterize how people in specific social positions should behave
role conflict
norms accompanying different roles may clash
the adjustment of people’s behavior, attitudes and beliefs to a group.
informational social influence
follow the opinions of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing right
normative social influence
conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while trying to avoid rejection
sitch influence on beh
see others engaging in a behavior, likely to be influenced by it.
Presence of a dissenter:
when someone else dissents he/she serves as a model and it significantly reduces conformity
LaPiere Study
Attitudes do not necessarily determine or predict our behavior
attitude and beh influence
Attitudes influence behavior more strongly when the counteracting situational factors are weak;Attitudes have a greater influence over our behaviors when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held
the deliberate effort to change or impact one’s attitude
Norm of reciprocity:
the golden rule; to get you to comply with a request you are given an unsolicited favor or gift
Door in the face technique:
persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject and then makes a smaller request believing you will be more likely to comply
Foot in the Door:
a persuader gets you to comply with a small request and then presents a larger request thinking you will now be more likely to comply
the persuader gets you to commit to an action then before you perform it the “cost increases”
a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
Milgram’s results: Variables which influenced obedience
Remoteness of the victim
Closeness and legitimacy of authority figure
Cog in the wheel
Personal characteristics: differences were weak or nonexistent
Cultural differences: similar results cross culturally
helping beh
Diffusion of responsibility:
when other’s are present the responsibility to help is divided among those present
bystander effect
people are less likely to provide help when in groups
who are most willing to help?
People who are more similar to us
Women are more likely to be helped than men
Perceived responsibility: more likely to help those who we view as “true victims”
: being near increases likelihood; availability increases attraction
Matching Hypothesis:
people tend to opt for those at their same level of attractiveness
Passionate Love:
intensely emotional and physical
Companionate Love:
deep affection, share emotional intimacy and friendship
Intimacy: sense of closeness and sharing
emotional and physical
efforts to maintain the relationship with difficulties and costs
negative attitudes towards people based on membership in a group
characteristics we attribute to people based on their membership in a group
treat people differently and unfairly based on group affiliation
Self-serving bias:
We attribute our successes to personal factors and our failures to situational forces. We do the opposite for others: assume others’ failures are due to personal factors. This bias increases prejudice
Group Membership:
We categorize ourselves as “in group” or “out group” and view our members in more favorable terms
Homogeneity Bias:
believe those in the “out group” are all the same, although we see the diversity within our own group
reduce group conflict...
Working on a common task or goal (superordinate goal) is an effective way to reduce in/out group conflict