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63 Cards in this Set

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intelligence
-abstract concept (you can't touch or hold it)
ex love/liberty/freedom
1. abilities to understand complex ideas
2. to adapt effectively to the environment
3. to learn from experience, by careful thought
4. understanding oneself and others
5. being good at music, dance, or athletics
Cross Cultural Comparisons of intelligence
1. most north americans - reasoning and thinking skills
2. kenya - responsible participaton in social life
3. Cree in james bay - visual patterns recognition skills
Problem with intelligence
if u cant define intelligence how do u measure it (there are many diff intelligence tests)
Charles Spearman
- believed performance on any cognitive task depended on a primary genergal factor (g- general intelligence)
and one or more specific factors (s)
-proposed a general intelligence "g" applied to an intellectual task
-aslo subset of intelligence (s)

ex. math needs (G)
arithmetic ability (s)
Multifactor approach
- believe intelligence is composed of many separate abilities that operare more or less independently
- individual can be high on some components of intelligence but low on others
Charles Thurston
(multifactor approach)

-intelligence is composed of 7 primary mental abilities (distinct abilities, can be high on some and low on others)
-factor analysis?
factor analysis
statistical technique used to find a cluster of items that measure a common ability
howard gardiner
theory of multiple intelligences
- added musical, bodily kinesthetic, linguistic,and other forms of intelligence to capture the full range of mental abilities

Savant syndrome (low IQ & Island of brilliance)
evidence for multiple intelligences
-comes from damages and savants
- brain lesions can cause specific disruptions
- ex: some damage language but leave math abilities intact
guilford
120 different types of intelligence
- factor analysis
-what goes in determines what comes out
alfred binet
1. first intelligence test
- objective method for identifying children who would profit from education in regular classrooms and who needed special education
- original intelligence test was designed to assess academic abilities, not general intelligence
2. mental age
- measures the individuals level of mental developments relative to others
william stern
- iq score
(ppl began to think of the iq as a general measure of intelligence)

(iq - intelligence quotient) - (mental age/chronological age) X 100

above 130 - geniurs
100 - avg
below 70 - mentally retarded

iq reflects individuals performance relative to that of persons of the same age who have taken the same test.
wechsler intelligence test
Wechsler ADULT intellgience scale (WAIS)
-wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC)

1. individually administered
2. verbal & performance subtests
(math, voc, simliarties, mazes,etc)
3. it provides a
- verbal IQ score
- Performance IQ score
- Full scale IQ score
group tests of intelligence
1. army alpha and army beta
2. can test more people at the same time and is less costly than individual tests
3. Problems :
examiner cannot: - establish rapport
- see how the person approaches the test items
- learn about tet taker's frame of mind
3 requirements for a good test
1. reliability - results are consistent, repeatable or stable

2. validity - test measures what it claims to be measuring

3. standardized administration & scoring - compares subjects test score to norms
Norms
establish standards of performance on the test that are created by giving the test to a large group of individuals who are representative of the population

- standardized test results typically form a normal distribution - bell shaped curve (avgs iq - 100)
3 diagnostic critera for mental retardation
1. low iq - below 70
2. fail to display adequate social adaptive skills
3. evident by age 18
levels of mental retardation
mild - majority of all MR - most have no biological cause (familial retardation)

moderate
severe
profound
two main causes of mental retardation
1. organic - which involves genetic disorder or brain damage

2. cultural-familial - involving no evidence of organic brain damage
causes of mental retardation
1. genetic disorder
2. birth trauma
3. maternal infections
4. maternal use of drugs/alcohol
5. sensory or maternal deprivation
chemical deficiencies
hazards present during fetal development and birth (ex loss of oxygen)
down syndrome
1. occurs in approximately one in ever 1000 live births
2. most frequently occuring chromosomal disorder
3. not related to race, nationality, religion, or socioeconomic statis
4. greater risk for a child born from a woman 35 years or older
types of down syndrome
there are 3 chromosomal patterns that result in down syndrome

1. Trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) is cuased by a faulty cell division that results in baby having 3 #21 chromosomes instead of two (95 % of all DS cases)
prenatal diagnosis
two types of procedures are available to pregnant women: screening test and diagnostic test

screening tests estimate the risk of the baby having down syndrome (measuring quantities of substances in blood/sonograms)

diagnostic tests - tell whether or not the baby actually has down syndrome
intellectually gifted
- have well above average IQ and/or a superior talent in a certain area
- 2-4% of the pop have IQ scores greater than 130
- most often are well adjusted, popular, and outgoing
Longitudinal study of intellectually gifted
1500 california school kids w/ iq over 135

-physically and mentally healthier than nongifted
-well-adjusted
-happy
-unusually successful academically
-high levels of education
-many became scientists/writters/professionals
-ones who most visibly successful had extroadinary motivation and someone who especially encouraged them

iq + motivation + support = success
nature vs. nurture
nature - heredity (genetics)

nurture - environment

environgment - conditions in world around us
evidence for heredity
1. twin studies - twins raised apart many years later the correlation b/w the tinws iq scores is high and positive
identical twins +.88
fraternal twins +.60
siblings +.5
cousins +.15

greater the gentic similarity b/w the ppl the more similar their iq scores

*childs iq correlates more highly with their biological parentes vs their adoptive parents

-certain genes are associated w/ high intelligence

- tryon - inbred maze bright and maze dull rats
evidence for environment
1. twin studies - reared apart
2. environmental deprivation and enrichment studies
3. worldwide gains in IQ at all ages in recent decades ( 3 iq points per decade worldwide) - due to better nutrition, urbanization, tv, more/better educcation, computer games, cognitively demanding jobs
emotional intelligence
EQ

daniel Goleman

Eq is differeng from IQ

5 major components:
1. knowing our own emotions
2. managing our own emotions
3. motivated ourselves
4. recognizing and influencing other's emotions
5. handeling relationships
motives
the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel ppl in certain directions - thought of as something with in an individual that
1. energizes behavior
2. gives it direction toward a goal
3. accounts for intensity
4. and Persistence of behavior
emotion
feelings

*motivation and emotion both influence our behavior
why is it hard to know what motivates someone?
1. different motives may result in the same behavior
2. different behaviors may satisfy the same motive
3. a person may be unaware of the motivation behind their actions
4 sources of motivation
1. biological factors - need for food
2. emotional factors - fear/love
3. cognitive factors - not always rational
4. social factors (ex argentina - anorexia)
primary motives
innate, unlearned, universal, biological, survival needs

ex. hunger, thirst, pain avoidance, needs for air, sleep, elimination of wastes, regulation of body temperature
3 types of motives
1. primary
2. secondary - learned motives (ex. achievement, power)
3. stimulus motives (appear to be innate/unlearned but they are not necessary for survival) - activity, manipulation, curiosity, exploration, physical contact
intrinsically motivated
engage in an activity because they are interested in and enjoy the activity
extrinscially motivated
engage in activities for instrumental or other reasons, such as receiving an award
major theories to explain motivation
1. instinct theory
2. drive reduction theory
3. arousal theory
4. incentive theory
5. cognitive theory
6. opponent process theory
7. maslow's hierarchy of needs

*no single theory provides a complete explanation of human motivation
instinct theory
- we are motivated by instincts
-unlearned, innate, genetically coded, automatic, involuntary behavior patters
-that PREDISPOSES someone to behave in a certain way when specific envrionmental conditoins are present

*instinctive behavior is characteristic of all members of a species (ex sea turtles go to water)
imprinting
ducks follow the first thing they see when born during a critical period...after which imprinting wont occur
Norms
establish standards of performance on the test that are created by giving the test to a large group of individuals who are representative of the population

- standardized test results typically form a normal distribution - bell shaped curve (avgs iq - 100)
3 diagnostic critera for mental retardation
1. low iq - below 70
2. fail to display adequate social adaptive skills
3. evident by age 18
levels of mental retardation
mild - majority of all MR - most have no biological cause (familial retardation)

moderate
severe
profound
two main causes of mental retardation
1. organic - which involves genetic disorder or brain damage

2. cultural-familial - involving no evidence of organic brain damage
causes of mental retardation
1. genetic disorder
2. birth trauma
3. maternal infections
4. maternal use of drugs/alcohol
5. sensory or maternal deprivation
chemical deficiencies
hazards present during fetal development and birth (ex loss of oxygen)
problems with instinct theory
1. instinct became a meaningless label to describe human behavior without explaining it
2. instinct theory cant be tested - it is circular
why do we read books?
we read books because we have an instinct to read books.
ho do we know we have the instinct?
b/c we read books
3. fails to account for the important role of LEARNING
drive reduction theory
- we are motivated to maintain homeostasis - a balanced physiological state (maintain body temp, blood pressure, oxygen level, etc)
1. any imbalance in homeostasis creates a need
2. in responding to needs the brain tries to restore homeostasis by creating a psychological state called drive (need -> drive (thirst))
3. drive motivates you to take some action (drive reducing behavior) to fulfill the need and thus return to homeostasis

need- drive (thirst) - drive reducin beh (drink water) - homeostasis
drive reduction theory problems
1. homostatic drives are not "all powerful" ex. us of tobacco/alohol/cocaine craved by body while ignoring vital bodily needs
2. needs may increased with time, but drive can be ignored ex. hunger vs talk on phone
3. no drive for each need
A. pilot needs oxygen, but not drive state for oxygen
B. diet pill..need food but no drive
4. we continue to engage in certain behaviors after our eneds are met (dessert after full meal)
5. can't explain behaving toincrease our arousal - may behave in ways that increas vs. decrease a drive
ex. skip meals to lose weight
arousal theory
- we are motivated to maintain an optimum arousal level
-each person has their own "optimum level of arousal" - this accounts for ppl having differences in their preferred activities
incentive theory
we are motivated by valued external goals - incentives

incentives - external stimuli in the environment that pull or attract us

Value of an incentive can change over time
ex. chocolate bar may not be an incentive after u eat 10

what is a positive or negative incentive varies from person to person
opponent process theory
1. any reaction to a stimulus is automatically followed by its opposite or opposing process

2. after repetaed exposure to the same stimulus, the first reaction weakens,whilt the opponent process becomes stronger
cognitive theory
we are motivated by our thoughts, expectations, attributions

-you would be motivated to study hard if you BELIEVED you were a responsible student and you EXPECTED to master the material

you thought you controlled your grades and ATTRIBUTED your succcess to your efforts and abilities, not to chance or luck
abrahams maslow's hierarchy of needs
self actualization on top

physiological/biological needs on bottom (food , water, shelter) - must be satisfied first
abraham maslow
a human pscyhologist

self actualization - each person is born with an inner drive to reach their full
potential

- a musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must right, if he is to be ultimately at peace w/ himself

what a man can be he must be
criticism of maslow
1. people dont always satisfy basic needs first
ex. some ppl will risk their lives to save others

2. progression thru hierarchy is not universal
eating behavior - 4 sources of motivation
1. biological
2. emotional
3. cognitive
4. social
set point theory
there is a homeostatic mechanism in the body that regulates matabolism, fat storage, and food intake so as to maintain a PROGRAMMED WEIGHT
components of emotions
1. physiological arousal - bodily changes in HR, BP, breathing, perspiration, muscle tension

2. subjective cognitive states - the personal expereicne we label as emotions

3. expressive behaviors - signs of internal reactions
theories of emotion
1. james lange theory
2. cannon bard theory
3. cogntive theory - stanly schachter (emotion - Physiological arousal X cognitive label)
james lange theory
it is the experiencing of physiological responses (ex changes in heart rate) that creats fear

you see bear -> automatic physiological response ->emotion (fear)

as we b/c aware of Physiological changes we experience emotions- eachdifferent emotion is created by a different pattern of physiological responses
facial feedback hypothesis
-supports james lange theory

changes in our facial expressions sometimes produce shifts in our emotional expressions rather than merely reflecting them

studies have shown that ppl feel emotions such as happiness, anger, or sandess for ex when makin an angry or sad face

they can also ease teh feelings by relaxing their faces
cannon bard theory
emotional provoking events simultaneously give rise to
1. physiological reactions (ANS)
2. and subjective states we label as emotions (cerebral cortex)

subjective emotional expreiences are produced by specific external stimuli
cognitive theory of emotions
-stanly schachter

emotion = physiological arousal X cognitive label

research studies : adrnalin + cogntive label