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50 Cards in this Set

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The science of behavior and mental processes
Psychology
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental process.
Biological Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact on behavior.
Cognitive Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior
Behavioral Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how other people and the cultural context imapct on behavior and mental processes
Sociocultural Perspective
Research methods whose main purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of behavior and mental processes
Descriptive Methods
A descriptive research method in which the behavior of interest is observed in its natural setting, and the researcher does not intervene in the behavior being observed
Naturalistic Observation
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes part of the group being observed
Participant Observation
A descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time.
Case Study
A descriptive research method in which the researcher uses questionnaires and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people.
Survey Research
The entire group of people that a researcher is studying.
Population
The subset of a population that actually participates in a research study.
Sample
A research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related (how well either one predicts the other)
Correlational Study
Any factor that can take on more than one value.
Variable
A statistic that tells us the type and the strength of the relationship between two variables. The sign of the coefficient (+ or -) indicates the type of correlation. The absolute value of the coefficient represents the strength of the correlation, with 1 being the maximum strength.
Correlation Coefficient
An explanation of a correlation between two variables in terms of another variable that could possibly be responsible for the observed relationship between the two variables.
Third-Variable Problem
In an experiment, the variable that is a hypothesized cause and thus is manipulated by the experimenter.
Independent Variable
In an experiment, a variable that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable and thus is measured by the experimenter.
Dependent Variable
In an experiment, the group exposed to the independent variable.
Experimental Group
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the independent variable.
Control Group
Statistics that describe the results of a research study in a concise fashion.
Descriptive Statistics
A depiction, in a table or ficgure, of the numbler of participants (frequency) receiving each score for a variable.
Frequency Distriution
A frequency distribution that is shaped like a bell. About 68% of the scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations and over 99% within 3 standard deviations of the mean.
Normal Distribution
Cells that transmit info within the nervous system.
Neuron
Cells in the nervous system that comprise the support system for the neurons.
Glial Cells (glia)
Fibers projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to receive info from other neurons.
Dendrites
The part of the neuron that contains its nucleus and the other biological machinery to keep the cell alive and that decides whether or not to generate a neural impulse in order to pass incoming info on to other neurons.
Cell Body
The long, singlualr fiber projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to conduct the neural impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals triggering chemical communication with other neurons.
Axon
An insulating layer covering an axon that allows for faster neural impulses.
Myelin Sheath
A naturally ocuring chemical in the nervous system that specializes in transmitting information between neurons.
Neurotransmitter
The microscopic gap between neurons across which neurtransmitters travel to carry their messages to other neurons.
Synaptic Gay (Synapse)
A computerized image of the activity levels of various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of oxygen brought to each area
fMRI
A drug or poison that increases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters
Agonist
A drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurtransmitters.
Antagonist
A neurtransmitter involved in memory and muscle movement
Acetycholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter involved in attention, though processes, reward centers, and movement.
Dopamine
A disease in which the person has movement problems such as muscle tremors, difficulty initiating movements, and rigidity of movement. These movement problems stem from a scarcity of dopamine in the basal ganglia.
Parkinsons Disease
Neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood.
Serotonin and Norepinephrine
A group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain perception and reivew.
Endorphins
The brain & Spinal Chord
Nervous System
Neurons that integrate info within the CNS through their communication with each other and between sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord.
Interneurons
Neurons in the PNS that carry info to the CNS from sensory receptors, muscles, and glands.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons in the PNS that carry movement commands from the CNS out to the rest of the body.
Motor Neurons
The initial information gathering and recoding by the sensory structures
Sensation
The interpretation by the brain of sensory info.
Perception
The processing of incoming sensory info as it travels up from the sensory structures to the brain.
Bottom-Up Processing
The brain's use of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations to interpret sensory info.
Top-Down Processing
The interpretation of ambiguous sensory info in the terms of how our past experiences have set us to perceive it.
Perceptual Set
The use of the persent context of sensory info to determine its meaning.
Contextual Effect
The Gestalt perceptual organizational principle that the brain organizes sensory information into a figure or figures (the center of attention) and ground (the less distinct background).
Figure and Ground Principle