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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the task of psy…to analyze consciousness and break it down into the structures that make it up: Sensations and perception, vision, touch and hearing.
contemplation of one’s own thoughts, feelings and sensations; self-examination.
Father of Psychology
William Wundt
Father of Functionalism
William James
function/purpose of consciousness…rather than its structure.
mental testing
-patterns of development
-behavioral differences
-differences between the sexes
-(stream of consciousness)
“psychology should only study observable behavior.”…hypotheses should be observable, and testable. Outward actions, vs. ideas, thoughts and consciousness. (not easily observable)
Such as:
-playing games
-social interactions
Nature vs. Nurture-
-nature: genetics
-nurture: environment and upbringing.
Austrian physician: used psycho-analysis.
-dealt with patients of disorders, obsessions, fears, anxieties, and came up with ideas that used psycho-analysis to explain why humans acted the way they did. He thought that the unconscious mind influenced the conscious mind and BEHAVIOR. He thought that humans were not masters of their own actions, emotions, thoughts.
-that idea made him unpopular…and people pushed him aside.
Freudian slip
the idea that when you say something that didn’t quite fit, or you were like, “oops…”..that it was really your subconscious mind talking, and what you were really thinking under the surface.”
B.F. Skinner-
- Behavioralism
-strongly supported the study of behavioralism, and measurable actions/responses
- Behavioralism
-behavior that leads to negative (-) outcomes, will probably NOT happen again
-behavior that leads to positive (+) outcomes, will probably happen again.

“unique qualities of humans…and our potential for personal growth.”

-Behavior is governed primarily by each individual’s sense of self, or self-concept…”more than just reflexes.”
-we can somehow beat the system, or grow out of psychological traps. We can acquire the mental processes of learning/acquiring knowledge, and growing.
Scientific Method
the process by which you try and seek out the pleasant AND unpleasant truths of an experiment/situation….,and then go back and try the method again with new evidence.
Explain S M
1. Start with a Q’s
…then, based on your ideas…
2. Come up w/a hypothesis of what you think will happen.
3. TEST IT!!...
…the best tests are ones that are hard to find a positive…make a test with a hypothesis that is disprovable…in science, not very much is proven. You can just collect the data..and gain support for your hypothesis.
…after you test it…
1. Collect the data from the test
2. Analyze ALL of the data from the test
3. Compare it to your hypothesis…how far off were you?
…if yes…hooray.
…if no,…Re-evaluate your method.
5 Limitations of personal experience
1. confirmation bias and counting problem… we might like to think that we are open-minded, but actually we have biases and pre-conceived notions about almost everything. We disagree with things that go against our bias, and agree with things that seem to go along with our bias.
2. Limited Data problem…we have a low-data problem. Can’t see the whole picture from one piece of evidence. Is there a large enough sample/experiment? Maybe you need to do multiple experiments in order to get a steady constant.
3. Expectations Problem…we have certain expectations…and those affect how we perceive situations. Kind of like #1.
4. Base Rate/ Comparison Group… there is no group to compare other factors to. You need a CONTROLLED/CONSTANT group. Without one, what can you compare anything to in order to gauge the affect.
5. The Pleasant Truth…people tend to believe what sounds good to them…instead of what is not pleasing to them. If I don’t like it, I am not going to be as willing to believe it.
a. What you need to ask as a psychologist…what is the truth of the situation…pleasant or unpleasant?
Neolithic Man
10,000 years ago...skulls had trepanation (hole in the brain)
1. Dualism-mind and brain are two separate entities.
mind arises from burning physiology...and there is only one entity.
used small electrical stimulation in the pineal gland (at the base of the brain) to evoke emotional states, and movement.
found patients with damage to the L cerebral hemisphere could understand language, but could not speak it...could understand, but not create.
damn canuck...he stimulated areas of the brain...which evoked many responses...that weren't random. Areas involved with motor skills, emotions, mental pictures. AND..he mapped out the brain.
Phinneus Gage
had a steel rod driven through his skull/brain. Went from before...hard-working, honest, well-balanced, angry, cursing, and multiple personalities...(skitsie")
Two types of cells in the brain
Neurons,(1 billion in the brain) and Glial cells. (1 trillion in the brain.)
the space between the dentrites and the axons
cell body
What does the information do, when taken to the dendrites?
1. re-uptake...chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) are taken up by the axon
2. Signal/message is broken down.
insulates the axon...which increases the speed by 10x.
Information process
production, release (of neurotransmitters...hangs out in synapse, and receptors on ends of dendrites pick up info and signals), and 4 broken down.
Cerebral spinal fluid
fluid surrounding the brain, that coushions it.
Blood to brain barrier
brain is very tight to skull. Dopamine is too big to fit through blood vessels in between skull and brain. So, we use L-Dopa (Dopamine pre-curser) because it's smaller and fits through.
Gyrus and Sulcus
Ridges, and valleys on the brain
the impulse to look at a rapid movement.
whatever side of the brain is damaged, the patient only recognizes the opposite side of things...half of a clock.
the body mapped out on the brain...
responsible for VISION
Somatic division
motor neurons to move muscles, and sensory neurons
Autonomic Div.
1. Sympathetic: heart rate, breathing, sweating..
2."fight or flight" responses
parasympathetic Division
CHILLAXIN'...conservation of energy.
Aristotle catagorized
the 5 SENES
In all sensory reactions, 3 things have to happen:
1. reception at receptors
2.Transduction-changes sensory modality into an electrical potential
3.En Coding-electrical potential is encoded into a meaningful message
Receptive field
Area that when stimulus hits, it changes the activity of a neuron...they are different sizes, and even can overlap
3 Receptive fieldsSomatosensory
1.Somatosensory-touch...what specific area the neuron can pick up on/receive.
3.Auditory-how loud vs. frequency
light information passes through where in the eye?
the retina.
on-center cell
plusses in teh middle
sequence of information to the nerves... layer
Hermann Grid Illusion
darkened intersections on a black and white grid...
three parts of the ear
outer (pinna, and canal), Middle ear...and the Inner ear
our perception of air pressure...we can hear 1 kilohertz
What are the two types of skin?
hairy, and Glaborous skin
explain the 2 types of skin
hairy-covers most of the body...where there is hair, there is not as much point-to-point discrimination...and Glaborous skin-hairless...areas of the body that we user for exploring...hands, genitals, lips...There's a very fine point to point discrimination..where there is no hair.