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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Science
In pyschology, the use of systematic methods to observe, descrobe, predict, and explain behavior.
Behavior
Everything we do that can be directly observed
Mental processes
The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately, but cannot be observed directly.
Natural selection
An evolutionary process that favors organism's traits or characteristics that are best adapted to reproduce and survive
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that attempted to discover basic elements of the human mind
E.B. Titchener
Functionalism
An early school of psychology that emphasized the interaction between the mind and the outside environment. William James
Behavioral Approach
Empasizes the scientific study of behavior and asserts that behavior is shaped by the envirnment. John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
Social Cognitive Theory
Stresses that behavior is determined not only by environmental conditions but also by how thoughts modify the impact of environment on behavior. Albert Bandura
Psychodynamic Approach
Empasizes the unconscious aspects of the mind, conflict between biological instincts and society's demands, and early family experiences. Sigmund Freud
Cognitive Approach
Focuses on the mental process involved in knowing, how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems. Elizabeth Loftus
Behavioral Neuroscience Approach
Views understanding the brain and nervous system as central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.
Evolutionary Psychology Approach
Emphasizes the importance of functional purpose and adaptation in explaining why behaviors are formed, modified, and survive.
Sociocultural Approach
Emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
Humanist Movement
An emphasis on a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose any destiny, and positive qualities
Positive Psychology Movement
A strong emphasis on the experiences that people value subjectively, such as happiness, positive individual traits, such as capacity to love, and positive group and civic duties, such as responsibility. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Martin Seligman
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Diagnose and treath people with mental disorders. Clinical=more serious, counseling=less serious
Experimental Psychology
Conduct experimental research
Behavioral Neuroscientists
Brain's role in pyschological disorder. Comparitive Psych. = work with animals
Developmental Psychology
Development from conception to death
Social Psychology
How do people function in groups?
Personal Psychologists
Traits of certain people and how other factors influence those traits
Health Psychologists
Risky behaviors such as obesity, etc.
Community Psychologists
Focus on community-based resource for people with mental disorders. Help people gain access to these resources.
School and Educational Psychology
Focus on learning adjustment and use testing and some therapy.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Study people in the workplace and keep employees happy and hire the best people.
Environmental Psychology
Interactions between people and their pysical environment
Cross-Cultural Psychology
Examine culture and the behavior across those cultures
Psychology of women
Promote research and study of women
Forensic Psychology
Apply psychology to criminals and work on legal teams to help interogate and understand how jurys make decisions
Sports Psychology
Pyschology principlas as they apply to sports and excerise
American Psychology Association (APA)
Founded in 1882, it is the major psych. oraganization
American Psychological Society (APS) or Association for Psychological Science
Focuses on a more scientific aspect.
Critical Thinking
The process of thinking reflectively and productively as well as evaluating evidence
Theory
A broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain and predict observations
Hypothesis
An idea that is a testable prediction, often arrived at logically from a theory
Operational Definition
A circumstance or behavior defined in such a way that it can be objectively observed and measured
Population
The entire group that the investigator wants to learn about
Sample
The subset of the population that the investigator has chosen to study
Random Sample
A sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
Naturalistic Observation
Observation of behavior in real-world settings with no effort made to manipulate or control the situation
Standardized Test
An oral or written assesment for which an individual receives a score indicating how the individual responded relative to others
Case Study
An in depth look at a single individual
Correlational Research
Research with the goal of describing the strength of the relationship between two or more events of characteristics
Experiment
A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more facotrs believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated and all other factors held constant
Independent Variable
The manipulated, influential, experimental factor in an experiment
Dependent Variable
The factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
Experimental Group
A group in a research study whose experience is manipulated
Control Group
A comparison group that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor
Random Assignment
The assignment of participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Experimenter Bias
The influence of the experimenter's own expectations on the outcome of the research
Research Participant Bias
The influence of research participants' expectations on their behavior within an experiment
Placebo
An innocuos, inert substance or condition that may be given to participants instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to determine if it produces effects similar to those of the active agent.
Placebo Effect
The influence of participants expectations, rahter than the experimental treatment, on experimental outcome
Double Blind experiment
An experiment that is conducted so that neither the experimenter nor the participoants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the placebo control group until after the results are calculated
Descriptive statistics
Mathematical procedures that are used to describe and summarize samples of data in a meaningful way
Mean
Statistical measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the scoes and then dividing by the number of scores
Median
A statistical measure of central tendency that falls exactly in the middle of distribution of scores after they have been arranged or ranked from highest to lowest
Mode
A statistical measure of central tendency, the score that occurs most often.
Range
A statistical measure of variability that is the distance between the highest and lowest scores.
Standard Deviation
A statistical measure of variablility that involves how much the scores vary on the average around the mean f the sample.
inferential statistics
Mathematical methods that re used to draw conclusions about data
ethnic gloss
Using an ethnic label, such as "African American" or "latino" in a superficial way that portrays the ethnic group as more homogeneous than it really is.
Nervous System
The body's electro-chemical communication circutry, made up of billions of neurons
Plasticity
The brain's sepcial capacity for modification and change
Afferent nerves
Sensory nerves that transport information to the brain
Efferent nerves
Motor nerves that carry the brain's output
Neural networks
Clusters of neurons that are interconnected to process information
central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The network of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. It is divided into the somatic nervous system and the automatic nervous system
somatic nervous system
the division of the PNS consisting of sensory nerves, whose function is to convey information to the CNS, and motor nerves, whose function is to transfer information to the muscles
autonomic nervous system
the division of the PNS that communicates with the body's internal organs. it consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonic nervous system that arouses the body
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
neurons
nerve cells that are specialized for processing information. neurons are the basic units of the nervous system
glial cells
cells that provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system
cell body
the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance
dendrites
branches of a neuron that receive and orient information towards the cell body, most neurons have numerous dendrites
axon
the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body to other cells. each neuron has only one axon
myelin sheath
the layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons. the myelin sheath speeeds up the transfer of nerve impulses
resting potential
the stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron
action potential
the brief wave of electrical charge that sweeps down the axon during the transmission of a nerve impulse
all-or-none principle
once an electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity, it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any of its intensity
synapses
tiny junctions between two neurons, generally where the axon of one neuron meets the dendrites or cell body of another neuron
neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap from one neuron to another
agonist
a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitters effects
antagonist
a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects
hindbrain
the lowest level of the brian, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum, and pons
midbrain
located between the hindbrain and forebrain, a region in which many nerve-fiber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain
reticular formation
a midbrain system that consists of a diffuse collection of neurons involved in stereotypical behaviors, such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend a sudden noise
brain stem
the region of the brain that includes most of the hindbrain (excluding the cerebellum) and the midbrain
forebrain
the highest level of the brain. key structures in the forebrain are the limbic system, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex
limbic system
a loosely connected network of structures-including the amygdala and hippocampus-that play important roles in memory and emotion
thalamus
forebrain structure that functions as a relay station to sort input and direct it to different areas of the cerebral cortex, it also has ties to the reticular formation
basal ganglia
located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, these large clusters of nerons work with the cerebral cortex and coordinate voluntary movement
hypothalamus
forebrain structure involved in regulating eating, drinking, and sex;directing the endocrine system through the pituitary gland; and nibutoring emotion, stress, and reward
cerebral cortex
highest level of the forebrain, where the highest mental functions, such as thinking, and planning, take place
occipital lobe
the part of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head that is involved in vision
temporal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex just above the ears that is involved in hearing, language processing, and memory
frontal lobe
the part of the cerebral cortex just behind the forehead that is involved in the control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, and personality
parietal lobe
area of the cerebral cortex at the top of the head that is involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
somatosensory cortex
area of the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations
motor cortex
area of the cerebral cortex that processes information about voluntary movement
assocation cortex
region of the cerebral cortex in which the highest intellectual functions, including thinking a problem solving, occur also called association areas
corpus callosum
the large bundle of axons that connects the brain's two hemispheres
endocrine system
a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands
pituitary gland
an important endocrine gland at the base of the skull that controls growth and regulates other glands
adrenal glands
important endocrine glands that are instrumental in regulating moods, energy level, and the ability to cope with stress
chromosomes
threadlike structures that contain genes and DNA. humans have 23 chromosone pairs in the nucleus of every cell. each parent contributes 1 chromosome to the pair
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a complex molecule that contains genetic information; makes up chromosones
dominant-recessive genes principles
if one gene of a pair governing a given characteristic (such as eye color) is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene overrides the recessive gene. a recessive gene exerts its influence only if both genes are ressive.