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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychology definition
the science of mental progess and behavior
three levels of analysis
Brain, person, group
levels of the brain
brain cells and their connections, chemical soup and genes
Descartes
focused attention on the distinction between the mind and body and the difference between the two
First Spychology Laboratory
Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Leipzig, Germany
Structuralism
the school of spychology that sought to identify the basic elements of experience and to describe the rules and circumstances under which these elements combine to form mental structures
functionalism
the school of spychology that sought to understand the ways that the mind helps individuals function or adapt to the world
Gestalt psychology
understanding mental processes that focus on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum
psychodynamic theory
a theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior
behaviorism
focuses on how specific stimulis evokes a specific response
humanistic spychology
assumes people have positive values free will and deep inner capacity and leads them to choose a lifefull-filling path
spychotherapist
helps clients learn to change so they can cope with troublesome feelings thoughts and behaviors
industrial/ organizational psychologist
applies spychology to the work place
neurons
receives processes and send signals to other neurons muscles or bodily organs
reuptake
when surplus neurotransmitters is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron so it can effectively fire again
sypathetic division (sypathetic nervous system)
is all about the fight or flight (increasing breathing, heart rate, perspiration, and descreasing salivation
parasypathetic division (parasympathetic nervous system)
counteracts the sympathetic system
occipatal lobe
back of the head controls vision
left hemishpere
controld the right side of the body (analitical)
right brain
controls lefts side of the body
limbic system
controls fighting fleeing feeding and sex include hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and thalamus
testosterone
hormone that causes males to develop facial hair, muscles, and other sexual characteristics
estrogen
causes breast to develop and is involved in the menstrul cycle
pituitary gland
regulates all other glands and is responsible for growth
electroencephalograph (eeg)
records electrical current produced by the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri)
an mri that detects the amount of oxygen being brought to a specific place in the brain
mendelian inheritance
transmition of characteristics by inheritance
evokative interaction
when genetic characteristics are drawn otu by the people
learning
permanent change in behavior resulting from experience
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus plus stimilus causing a reflective behavior cause new behavior
john watson's research
research how fear can lead to a phobie
spontaneous recovery
process by which the CS will again elicit the CR even after extinction
taste aversion
classicaly conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste
operant conditioning
behavior becomes associated with its consequence
law of effect
satisfaction results will be more likely to be repeated
reinforcer
an object or even that comes after a response that changes the likelyhood of its reccurance
positive reinforcement
occurs when a desired reinforcer is presented after a certain behavior
punishment
an unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of a behavior
descriminative stimulus
the cue that tells the organizism that specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement
reinforcemnet schedule
a continous or partial reinforcement given on a time schedule
observational learning
learning that occurs through watching others
iconic memory
the visual form of sensory memory
echoic memory
the auditory form os sensory memory
long term memory
hold a huge amount of information from hours to years
primary effect
increase memory for the first few stimuli in a set
recency effect
increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set
episodic memory
memories of events thast are associated with a particular context and time place and circumstances
explicit memory
memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM verbal and visual are explicit
priming
the result of having just preformed a task thast facilitates repeating the same or an associated task
"knock out mice"
when a gene is knocked out of a part of a genetic code of a mouse so that deleting all or crucial parts of a gene so it is disabled
apolipoprotein E (APO) E Gene
Is present in many people who develop alzheimers disease which devastates memory and also effects how the brain can store information
consolidation
the process of converting information to store dynamically in the LTM into a structural change in the brain
depth of processing
the number and complexity of the operations involved in process information expressed in a continuum from shallow to deep
intentional leanring
learning that occurs as a result of trying to learn
incidental learning
learning that occurs without intention
recall
the act of intentionally bringing explicit memories to awarness which reguires transfering information from LTM to STM
recognition
the act of encoding and input and matchiong it to a store representation
false memories
memories of events that did not occur
retrograde amnesia
amnesia that disrupts previous memories
anterograde amnesia
amnesia that leaves consolidtaed memories intact but prevents new learning
semantics
the meaning of the word or sentence
person-situation controversy
the raction of the person based on the situation given
personality
a consistant set of behavorial characteristics that people display over time and across certain situations
interactionism
a veiw of personality in which both traits and situations are believed to affect thoughts feelings and behaviors
big five
the five superfactors of personality extraversion, neurotisism, agreeablness, conscientiousness, and openess determined by factor analysis
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2)
a personality inventory primarially used to assess psychopathology
projective test
a method used to assess personalitry and psychopathology that involves asking the test taker to make sense of an ambiguious stimulation
psychodynamic theory
theory a theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior refers to the continual push and pull interactions among conscience and unconscious forces
Freud
a Viennese physician specializing in neurology developed a detail and subtle theory of how our thoughts and feelings affect our action
Self-monitoring technique
behavioral technigues that help the client identify the antecedents consequences and patterns of a problematic behavior
Rational-emotive therapy RET
emphasizes ration logical thinking and assumes that distressing feeling or symptoms are caused by faulty or illogical thoughts
Unconscious
outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought to consciousness at will
Psychosexual stages
Freuds developmental stages based on irogenous zones the specific needs of each stage must be met for its successful resolution
defense mechanism
an unconscios psychologial means by which a person tries to prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscience awareness
Humanistic Psychologist
assums people hav epositive values free will and deep inner creativity in which leads them to choose life fullfilling paths to personal growth
Locus of control
the source perceived to exerting control over lifes events
psychological disorder
the presence of a consilation of cognative emothional and behavioral symptoms that create significent stree impair work school family relationships or daily living or lead to a significient risk of harm
diathesis
a predisposition to a state or condition
Rosenhan
1973 tested people without psychological disorder gained admittance to psychiatriac hospitals by claming that they heard voices
major depression
a disorder charcterised by at least two weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities along with sleep or eating problems
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder marked by one or more manic episodes often alternating with periods of depression
Beck's "negative triad of depression"
consists of a negative view of the world, self, and future
Attributional style
a persons characteristics way of explainging lifes events
anxiety disorder
a category of disorder whose halmark is intense or persuasive anxiety or fear or extreme attempts to avoid theses feelings
obsession
a recurrent or persistant thought impulse or image that feels intrusive and inapropriate and is difficult to supress or ignore
Compulsion
a repetive behavior or mental act that an individual feels compelled to perform in response to an obsession
Schizopherenia
a psychotic disorder in which the patient affects behavior and thoughts are profoundly altered
Dopamine Hypothisis
an overproduction of dopamine or an increased number of sensitivity of dopamine receptors was responsible for schizopherenia
Behavior therapists
a type of therapy that is bssed on well researched principals of learning and focuses on changing observable measurable behavior
Behaviorable technique
in the treatment of OCD exposure to the cause but using response prevention
Aaron beck
1967 found evidence of a negative triad of depression in the thoughts of depressed people
“Psycho education”
the process for education clients about therapy and research findings pertaining to their disorders or problems
Cognitive-behavior therapy
therapy that focuses on the clients thoughts rather than their feelings or behaviors
Psychoanalysis
an intensive form of therapy originaly developed by Freud based on the idea that peoples psychological difficulties are caused by conflicts among the id ego and superego.
Psychodynamic therapy
a theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior refers to the continual push and pull interactions among conscience and unconscious forces
Client-centered therapy
a type of insite oriented therapy that focuses on people potential for growth and the importance of an empathetic therapist
Psychopharmacology
a use of medication to treat psychological disorders and problems
Antipsychotic medication
medication that reduces psychotic symptoms
Electroconvulsive therapy
ECT a contolled brain seizure use to treat people with certain psychological disorders
Group therapy
a therapy modality in which a number of clients with compatible needs meet together with one or two therapists
Individual therapy
modality in which an individualk client is treated by an individual therapist
Family therapists
modality in which a family is treated
Technical eclecticism
the use of specific techniques that may benefit a particular client without regard for an over searching theory
Carl Rogers
assisted in the first real insight oriented alternative therapy session
Self-help program
a group whose members focus on a specific disoreder or event and don not usually have a clinically trained leader
Delusion
entrenched false beliefs that are often bizarre
Suicide self murderization
Individualist
emphasizes the rights of the individual over the group