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94 Cards in this Set

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What is learning
A relitively permanent change in observable behavior that results in experiences with the environment

eg learning to drive, takes a while to learn, but then you dont just forget.
What are the 2 learning processes
Observational and Associative learning
What is observational learning?
learning by watching how others act
What is associative learning>
seeing 2 things are linked together (cause and effect) connection --or assiciation-- is learned about between 2 events

eg. if you get a sore throat you think you are getting sick, or see lightening know thunder will follow
How many kinds of conditioning is there and what are they?
2. Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning
what is conditioning?
the process of learning associations
what is classic conditioning?
organisms learn the association between 2 stimuli or events can therefore learn to anticioate the second when the first occurs

eg learning thunder and lightening go together.
what is operant conditioning?
Organisms learn and make associations between behavior and consequences

eg childern will likely repeat good manners if they are rewarded
Classic Conditioning is also known as what?
Pavlovian Conditioning
What is classic conditioning?
a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that already elicits that same response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)is what?
automatically elicits a response without having to be learned

e.g food in mouth
Unconditioned response (UCR) is what?
it is an unlearned automatic response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus

eg food in mouth UCS, mouth salavating UCR
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is what?
a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditional stimulus.
what is Conditioned Response (CR)
the learned resonse to the CS that occurs after pairing the CS with the UCS. Same as the unconditioned response.

eg salavation
which is the neutral, UCS, CS, UR, and CR?

-Pavlov range a bell
-dogs given meat powder, they salavate
-rang bell before giving food. Dogs associate the two
-After some pairing the a bell alone with no food cause the dog to salavate
-Pavlov range a bell (NEUTRAL)
-dogs given meat powder, they salavate (UCR)
-rang bell before giving food. Dogs associate the two
-After some pairing the a bell (CS) alone with no food cause the dog to salavate (CR)
which of the responses is which??? You hear a tone and then get a puf fof air in your eyes. After a few repitions hearing the tone makes you blink without the air.
UCS- air puff, elicits the UCR of blinking
CS, tone, elicits the CR blinking
What is stimulus generalization?
having a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the conditional stimulus
what is an example of stimulus generalization????
little albert and his fear of white fluffy things.
What is stimulus discrimination???
Having a conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus, but not to any other stimuli.

eg, if rang a different bell, pavlov's dog would not salivate.
if you dont pair conditioned stimulus with conditioned response the CR will disappear what is this called?

eg ring the bell without presenting food to the dogs many times in a row they will eventually stop salivating
What is spontaneous response?
The temporary return of a response that was previously extinguished

eg Remy goes to the vanity in the bathroom to et fed, even though his food has not been there for 4 years.
what is a phobia?
and unrealistic or exagerrated fear
how do you get rid of phobias?
can use conditioning to eliminate phobias.
What is counter conditioning?
a procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the provoking stimulus with a new response incompatible with fear

eg if little albert were to be given candy when near a white rat, and eventually he wouldnt even care about the rat.
How can smoking be a conditioned reponse.
can be a conditioned response to environmental stimuli

eg smoke when you get in the car or after you eat.

this can make it difficult to stop smoking because of the association made.
what is tolerance
a build up of drugs
how does classic conditioning effect drug tolerance?
users of certain drugs experience progressively weaker effects after taking repeatedly. Also how and where you do the drugs cause an conditioned response. So if you shoot heroine in the same place --the bathroom-- just going in the bathroom elicits a response from your body to counter act the effect of the drugs.
what can cause taste aversions?
when pairing food with stomach illness, often you get a distaste for food, even if the illness is not related directly to the food.

eg, me and jack in the box
What is used in Advertising and how?
Classical conditioning is used in ads by using beautiful woman (UCS) which causes emotional arounsal (UCR) in males. Then they pair that with a car(CS) which then causes emotional arousal (CR)

-note:seems to work best with a specific brand and products that arent encountered frewuently outside of the ads
Thorndike's law of effect states that a behavior that results in a ____ consequence will have a stonger effect then a ___ one.
Thorndike's law of effect states that a behavior that results in a POSITIVE consequence will have a stonger effect then a NEGATIVE one.
who was inspired by Thorndike?
BF Skinner
what is operant conditioning?
A form of learning in which behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequence.
Which behavior states that behavior that is followed by the presentation of a desired stimulus becomes more likely to occur in the future/
Positive reinforcement
what is the premack principle???
a behavior that occurs more frequently can be used to reinfornce behavior that is less frequent.

child likes to watch tv, so you make watching TV as a reinforcer for doing homework
What is an unlearned reinforcer that automaticaly works as the reforcer

ie food, drink, air or anything that satisfies a biological need.
primary reinforcer
what is a neutral stimulus that becomes reinforcing by its association with a primary reinforcer
secondary reinforcer.
how did secondary reinforcers work in WOfe's study (1936)
gave chimps poker chips as reinforcement. These chips couple be used to "buy" food. Eventually they started hoarding them and even stealing chips from others.
How do you reinforce a behavior that an individual does not usually perfeorm

eg rats pressing a lever
what is a good way to try to teach an animal to do something difficult they wouldnt usuually do (ie dogs playing dead)
what is chaining?
a procedure used to establish a desired sequence of behavior by reinforcing each behavior in a sequence.

(eg getting rat to do a complex series of events by focusing on one thing at a time)
what are schedules of reinforcement
patterns in which animals are reinforced for a behavior.
what us a continuous schedule of reinforcement
where everytime a behavior occurs it is reinforced
what is a partial schedules of reinforment
reinforcement given for only some instances of a desired behavior.
what is a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement.
reinforcement after a set period of time (exp like every 4 times the behavior happens. Would be called fr3)
what is VR
Variable ration schedule of reinforcement ives reinforcement after varyin responses, around a number. Exp have 4, then maybe you would do 5 this time, 3 next time, etc
what is fixed interval schedule of reinforcment
FI is a reinforcemet is given after a set amount of time

(eg giving a treat to a rat after he has pressed the lever for 30 seconds)
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
reinforcement is given for behavior produced after a variable amount of time.

(Eg rat will get pellet for pressing a lever on avg of 30 sex)
which schedule ratio has a higher resistance to extinction?
which reinforcement schedule has the lowest extintion rate?
fixed schedules, for variable shorter intervals generate higher rates overall.
why does fixed variables have a pause of behavior after reinforcement is given?
like if you study realy hard for a test, after the test you dont want to study for a while. Same thing. Dog ets his reinforcement then its not as important at that time, so its not as urgent so they slack off.
Is negative reinforcement where you beat a child for doing something wrong?
What is negative reinforcement
behavior that brings about the removal or avoidance of an aversive stimulus becomes more like to be occur in the future

eg annoying buzz in the car if you dont wear the sealtbelt. You put the seat belt on, no annoying buzz, so its negative reinforcent.
what are the 2 types of negative reinforcement???
Avoidance and escape
what is avoidance reinforcement?
Where you are proactive to stop something you dislike from occuring.

so you know when you turn on your car it is going to buzz until you put on your seat belt, so you put on your seat belt before you ever turn on the car.
what is escape learning, negative reinforcement.
something negative occurs right now and you want to escape a current aversive stimulus

(car buzzing so you put on your seat belt)
WHat is this an example of?

You are outside and the sun is hurting your eyes so you put on sunglasses
escape learning
THis is and axample of what?

a pale man is going to the beach he puts on a har and sunblock before he goes to the beach.
advoidance learning
what is punishment?
the process in which an adverse stimulus decreases the probability of a behavior occuring again that has proceded it

child is put on time out for doing something, in the future he is less likely to repeat the behavior he was punished for.
WHat can you do to make punishment effective?
make sure it is immediate so it is associated with the bad behavior, it shouldnt be too harsh or excessive, punishment should be consistant, and positive reinforcement should be used with it, so they are rewarded for good behaviors.
What is observational learning?
Learning a behavior by observing the consequences that others receive for forming that behavior.

eg rats watching and learning that if other rats press a lever then they get food.
what is memory?
Process of which you take new info, store in in the brain and later retreive it (possibly later forgotten)
what is sensory memory?
The stage of exact replicas of our sensations. Holds perceptual info long enough to be able to attend to its transfer to STM to process. Lots of info is held here (visual scene) but the info here fades very quickly.
What is ionic memory?
visual sensory memory. Lasts about 1 second lets you perceive seperate frames of a movies as a smooth continuous motion
WHat is echoic memory?
lasts 3-4 seconds lets you perceive speech blending toether successive spoken sounds

(like when nick asks me a ? and I say "what?" but before he can repeat it I realize what he said.
how much space does your stm have, and how long is info stored there???
holds a relatively small amount of info. Millers capacity of 7 (+/- 2 items) can be held by STM. If too much info is in STM then something will be pushed out and lost. Itesms in STM can fade is 20 seconds, unless displaced sooner. You cna keep things in you STM by rehearsing it (going over the phone number over and over.)
How much space does your Long term memory have?
VIrtually unlimited amount of info can be stored relatively permanently.
LTM holds info from when?
can be stored there reardless if it was learned 20 yrs ago or 1 min ago.
How does LTM and STM interact with one another?
If you were asked about a person you knew when you were a child, the memory would go from your LTM to you STM. Info in you LTM is not in your current awareness, it must be moved t o you STM for you to be aware of it.
How is info first transferred to LTM?
Levels of processing theroy states that something that is more deeply encoded is more apt to be remembered. (example if you just see a word it is easy to forget, but if you see the word, the meaning and how it is used in a sentace then you are more apt to remember it.
What is Semantic memory?
memories for certain facts and general knowledge. Like at what temp does water freeze, or who the president of the US is.
WHat is episodic memory?
memory for personal like events (eg remembering what you did last weekend, or 16th birthday)
what are flashbulb memories???
type of episodic memory that invove extraordinary events that involve strong emotional responses. (eg where were you when you first heard of the dealing of sept 11th?)
What is procedural memory?
memory for a skilled performance that results from practice (riding a bicycles, knowing how to swim, skiing)
Which type of memory is done at an unconscious level?
Procedural memory
What is forgetting caused by?
it is an inability to remember info can occur due to problems with encoding, storage of info, or retreival.
What are the three main reasons for forgetting?
1. Diverted attention, before you can store it, you think about something else (eg when you ask nick a ?, then start thinking about something else, then a few minutes later have to ask the ? over again) 2. decay- you stored something but over time it begins to fade. 3. interferance, inability to access stored info because of competition of new and old info
What are the 2 types of interferance?
Retroactive and proactive interferance
What is Proactive interferance?
Prior learning stops you from learning something new (you move and get a new phone number, but when you have to ive someone the new number you ive them all ro part of the old number, you find it difficult to remember the new number)
What is Retroactive interferance?
Something new you learned is making it difficult to remember something you learned in the past (me learning chinese and now I cant remember spanish)
What is memory distortion?
a distortion in memory overtime so that the memory is no longer accurate
What are false memories?
the implantation of memories of events that never actually occured.
What are the 2 types of amnesia?
Anterograde and Retrograde
If you have damage to your hippocampus it causes what?
Anterograde amnesia
what is anterograde amnesia?
when you have amnesia for new events. (50 1st dates)
What are the features of Anterograde amnesia?
effects transfer to LTM, but STM is still in tact, but you cant store new info in LTM. Effects memory regardless of modality (senses), so matter if you learn through visual, auditory, tactile, etc. It does not affect procedural memories.
What is it called if you can not remember any old events?
Retrograde amnesia
what is retrograde amnesia?
amnesia for old events cant remember all or some of the past. (most common)
What are the features of Retrograde amnesia
amount of time lost can vary widely, exp with parkinsons or alzheimers memory loss can be for decades where with head injuries it can be weeks or months. in head injuries the memories can sometimes be recovered. If that happens the older memories are recovered first. "Overlearned" info such as general intelleence, social skills, language etx is generally in tact.
what are some ways to improve memory?
Study when alert, in a quiet place with no distractions, overlearn material, study for short periods of time spread out over long periods of time (5, 1 hours study sessions better then 1 5 hr study session)
What is generate have to do with memory?
coming up w/ yours over emaples and relate them to your life (exp think of an example of prcedural, episodic, and sematic memory that is personal to you)
Memory- what is conect?
try to look for connections between new material and material you already know (eg episodic, you know what an episode is, so that might help you remmeber it)
what is distiveness have to do with memory?
looks for what makes that concept unique or different from other materia (compare and contrast concepts)
WHat does reorganize and explain mean
it will help your memory is you reorganize the info you are trying to learn and try to explain the topic to another person
What are mnemonic devices?
a technique for orgganizing info using cues to make info easier to rember

eg Roy G Biv, to remember colors of the rainbow, or in bar tending school remember how to make a singapore sling wiht "gay girls suck sloppy cherries"