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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
adverse impact v. unfairness v. differential validity
adverse impact: 4/5 rule states that the percentage of minorities selected out of all minority candidates must be at least 4/5 of the percentage of non-minorities seleceted out of all non-minority candidates

unfairness: when minorities and non-minorities score differently on a predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion

differential validity: when there are significantly different criterion-related validity coefficients for different ethnic groups on the same test
job analysis v. job evaluation
job analysis: describes in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by workers on a particular job including a job description and job specifications, provides data for other employment-related procedures

job evaluation: a formal process that determines the financial worth of a specific job to an organization
biodata
biographical information obtained from the standard application blank, the weighted application blank, or the biographical inventory
Holland's occupational themes, personality-job fit theory
Holland's occupational themes: RIASEC is realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional

job-fit theory: congruence refers to the degree of match between the personality type and work environment, consistency refers to how closely related an individual's first two code letters are on the hexagon, differentiation refers to the distinctness of a profile, environmental identity refers to an individual's view that the work environment has a clear and stable system of goals and rewards, vocational identity refers to the clarity and stability of an individual's own goals and interests
assessment centers; in-basket techniques
assessment centers: a method of selection that places new job applicants and candidates for promotion in a simulated job situation so that their behaviors under stress can be observed or evaluated

in-basket techniques: presents applicants with typical problems and questions that managers would expect to find when they return from a vacation
contrast v. halo effect
contrast: when an interviewer's ratings of a candidate are affected by the performance of the previous candidate

halo effect: when the employee's performance rating is based on one positive or negative aspect of the individual
cognitive ability v. interest v. personality tests
cognitive ability: good predictors of job success

interest: (e.g., Holland's) are poor predictors of job success but they do correlate with job satisfaction

personality tests: poor predictors of job performance
comparative v. individual or absolute methods of appraisal
comparative: straight rankings (listing workers from best to worst), forced distribution (ranking workers to fit a distribution), paired comparison (each employee is compared to every other employee in pairs)

individual (absolute) methods: graphic rating scales (ratings on several aspects of a job), BARS (comparing employees to behavioral anchors based on critical incidents), BOS (rating the extent to which a person engages in every bx), forced choice (rater must choose b/w 2 seemingly equally (un)desirable choices- controls for halo effect, leniency, and strictness), behavioral checklist (checklist of descriptors)
BARS v. BOS
BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale): an individual rating method that compares employees to behavioral anchors based on critical incidents

BOS (Behavioral Observation Scale): an individual method that rates the extent to which a person engages in job-related bx's
forced choice v. paired comparisons v. forced distribution
forced choice: an individual method that involves the rater choosing b/w two seemingly equally desirable or undesirable choices, controls for halo effect, leniency, and strictness

paired comparisons: a comparitive method in which each employee is compared to every other employee in pairs

forced distribution: a comparitive method in which workers are ranked to fit a distribution
effects of training
individual differences: training may magnify differences in ability

self-efficacy: individuals with a low sense of self-efficacy are less receptive,

motivation: individuals with higher levels of motivation learn more and are more likely to complete programs

active v. passive practice: individuals learn the most when actively involved

massed v. distributed practice: distributed practice is better

whole and part learning: presenting smaller units is better

transfer: overlearning and identical elements enhance transfer

feedback: frequent and timely is best

reinforcement: continuous initially and then thin the schedule
job rotation and Japanese management
job rotation involves exposing trainees (usually managers) to different jobs and departments to acquaint them with all facets of the organization, this is typical of Japanese companies
scientific management v. human relations approach
scientific management: views workers as extensions of machines, workers are considered lazy, dishonest, and not intelligent

human relations approach: increase productivity by improving the work environment
Theory X v. Theory Y v. Theory Z
Theory X: assumes workers are lazy and must be coerced and directed since they have no ambition or sense of responsibility

Theory Y: assumes people find satisfaction with their work and that control and punishment are not necessary to bring about good performance, people are industrious and creative and seek challenge and responsiblity

Theory Z: Japanese management strategies including lifelong employment with an emphasis on loyalty, slow promotion with an emphasis on non-specialized career paths, and high levels of group decision-making
authoritarian v. democratic v. laissez faire organizational leadership
authoritarian: delegates to employees in an autocratic fashion

democratic: seeks employee input in various aspects of the organization

laissez faire: generally not very involved in overseeing the operations of the organization and often lets the employees make the decisions
LPC Theory
LPC= subordinate who the leaders like the least

High LPC: if the leader rates the LPC highly, the leader is considered relationship-oriented

Low LPC: if the leader rates the LPC poorly, the leader is considered task-oriented

predicts that low LPCs are most effective as leaders in situations that are either highly favorable or unfavorable while high LPCs are most effective in moderately favorable situations
transactional v. transformational leader
transactional: more traditional, influences subordinates through daily, fairly emotionless exchanges, may use rewards or objectives

transformational leader: aims to broaden and elevate the goals of the subordinates utilizing charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consultation
five types of power
reward: based on ability to offer rewards

coercive: based on ability to punish

legitamate: based on hierarchy

referent: based on identifying with, admiring, or liking the leader

expert: based on having expertise and skills
rational economic v. administrative
decision-making approaches

rational economic: involves basis decisions on a clear definition of the problem, knowing all possible alternatives and consequences, then choosing the optimum solution

administrative: used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen
two-factor theory of motivation
lower level needs (hygeine factors or dissatisfiers) relate to job context, such as pay, work conditions, supervision

upper level needs (motivators or satisfiers) relate to job content and include needs for achievement, responsibility, and opportunity
job enrichment v. enlargement
enrichment (vertical): expanding jobs to give employees a greater role in planning and performing their work by increasing autonomy, authority and freedom and by encouraging employees to take on new, challenging tasks. results in increased satisfaction and performance, decreased turnover and absenteeism.

enlargement (horizontal): expands the variety of tasks performed. increases satisfaction and only slightly affects performance.
goals and feedback
goals: specific, intermediate to high difficulty, must receive feedback, sense of self-efficacy will increase performance, employee must accept goals
VIE theory v. equity theory
VIE theory (aka "expectancy theory"): asserts that people behave in ways that are based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow based on expectancy of success (expectancy), expectancy of rewards (instrumentality), and the value of the rewards (valence)

equity theory: adjust our performance based on percieved fairness or unfairness regarding the ratio of self-inputs/self outcomes v. others' inputs/others' outcomes
job satisfaction: correlations w/ age, gender, race, occupational level, productivity, turnover
age: positively correlated

gender: no significant differences

race: non-minorities report more than minorities, differences are most significant among managers

occupational level: positively correlated

productivity: weak positive correlation

turnover: moderate negative correlation
human factors v. psychological approach
human factors approach: the focus is on how humans and machines can most efficiently work together

psychological approach: includes job enlargement and job enrichment to increase satisfaction and motivation for self-actualization
QWL v. QCC
Quality of Work-Life Programs (QWL): target changes in organizational style by involving workers in teams that meet weekly to discuss problems in their areas of responsibility. greater effect on satisfaction than performance.

Quality Control Circles (QCC): concerned with specific ways to improve the finished product and the level of production. may enhance satisfaction but the goal is improved quantity and quality of production.
Organizational Development (OD)
a systems approach to organizational problems that involves a total organizational change and assists the organization in adapting to the change and preparing for future changes, also helps employees develop a new sense of purpose for their organization
centralized v. decentralized communication
centralized: one person, who is in the middle, gets all the information, best for simple tasks and results in fairly rapid communication

decentralized: all members can communicate with one another, best for tasks involving problem-solving but result in slower communication
risky shift v. response polarization v. groupthink
risky shift: the tendency for people in groups to make riskier decisions than they would if they were deciding as individuals

response polarization: the tendency for people in groups to become more extreme in their views when grouped with like-minded people

groupthink: occurs in highly cohesive groups when group members seek concurrence, consensus, and unanimity more than they seek the best possible alternative
overlearning
a training strategy used to develop very thorough knowledge of a task, particularly useful for tasks that are infrequently performed as well as for those performed under conditions of stress
compressed work week v. flextime
compressed work week: more hours on each of fewer days, resulting in decreased anxiety, decreased turnover, and increased satisfaction, drawbacks include fatigue and possible customer complaints due to unavailable personnel, effect on productivity is mixed with initially positive effects that wear off over time

flextime: some say it increases morale and productivity and decreases lateness, absenteeism, and turnover
noise in the workplace
most people can adapt to constant or continuous noise but intermittent noise is more distracting, perception of ability to control noise may be more important than the actual ability to control the noise