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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define consciousness
our subjective awareness of mental events
name and define functions of consciousness (there are two)
1-regulating-thoughts and behavior (to formulate and reach goals)
2-monitoring-the self and environment
processes of attention and their definitions
orienting-process of changing focus to monitor different aspects of environment
controlling-process of choosing what to think about
Freud's three mental systems and there definitions
1-consciousness-mental events you're aware of
2-preconscious-things you aren't currently thinking about, but can instantly remember, like your mother's name
dynamic unconscious-things that are kept out of consciousness to avoid anxiety; "repression"
descriptive unconscious-computation of hand eye coordination and shit like that
cocktail party phenomenon
subconsciously monitoring all conversations. a cluster on the other side of the room says your name, and you immediately orient your attention to them
subliminal perceptions
things that aren't consciously perceived, but can still influence emotions, perceptions, cognitions, and motives
divided attention
person attends two tasks at once
dichotic listening test
and result
numbers in one ear and words in another; say numbers as you hear them. afterwards, look at list of wors and select words you think you heard.
even if you missed hotel on the list, it affects later tasks, like mo _ _ _ is filled in as motel
unconscious cognitive processes vs. conscious cognitive processes
unconscious processes can happen simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly--"survival instinct," while conscious processes are more flexible, but have limited capacity and operate in serial
list some altered states of consciousness
dremaing, drugs, hypnosis, meditation, religious experience
circadian rhythms
day long 25 hour systems
what fluctuates during circadian rhythms
body temp, hormone concentrations, sleep/wake cycles
What's melatonin
a hormone that increases in brain during darkness
NREM sleep and progressionsq
NREM-not rapid eye movement sleep
stages 1-4 of NREM get increasingly higher amplitude and frequency EEGs until REM
REM sleep's EEGs resembles _____
waking activities
during REM what changes in your body
increased heart rate, respiration, and blood flow, but no muscle movement
every __ minutes of NREM sleep there's an REM cycle
throughout the night, each REM cycle gets _____
Freud's dream theory
dreams reflect unconscious wishes (sexual and aggressive), irrational, and emotional assoc.
there's latent content (meaning) and plot
an able interpreter can find the latent content from the plot
cognitive dream theory
just another form of thought, reflecting concerns--metaphorical
biological dream theory
brain has to deal iwth daily events for memory functions, so there's random neural firings that we interpret with meaning
relationship between sleep and learning
if you learn something and sleep for three hours or learn something and say awake for 3 hours, the sleeper will do better on a quiz
stress, depression, sleeping pills, can't sleep
sleep apnea
inability to breathe and sleep at the same time; randomly wake up throughout sleep to breath
fall asleep at innapropriate times
sleep paralysis
paralysis upon waking
depressants include what two drugs
alcohol and barbiturates
barbiturates are
sedatives, sleeping pills
anti-anxiety/tranquilizers, like valium
opiates include
heroin, codeine, morphine, opium
opiates are made from
cocaine is to crack as ____ is to heroin
Stimulants include
amphtamines (speed), cocaine (paranoia addictive), nicotine (most addictive), caffeine
Hallucinogens include
LSD, psilocybin (shrooms), peyote (little cactus, native american religious staple)
hallucinogens change mind set into
altered state of consciousness including: time distortion, paresis (inability to move), and out of body experience
chemical balance perception relationship
minor alterations of chemical balance=radical alteration of perception
hypnosis changes mind set to
in the moment, selective attention, can't evaluate reality, analgesic affects (pain relieving)
hidden observer
small part of ordinary condition in hypnotized state
part of brain with abnormal seizure place that spreads across brain
corpus callosum
fibers that link the hemispheres of brains
two heads in one/sperry and gazzaniga experiment
cut the corpus callosum (fibers that link hemispheres of brains) on intense seizure patients
helped with seizures
patients "seemed" normal
localized to one or the other side of the brain, generally too generalized
the Left hemisphere tends to be
dominant for language, logic, complex motor behavior aspects of consciousness--ANALYTICAL
the Right hemisphere tends to be
dominant for maps, recognition of faces, music, places--NONLINGUISTIC
hemispheres and emotions
hemispheres differ in processing emotions, so split brain patients have a right brain bad mood and a left brain content mood
____ is the oldest part of the CNS
spinal cord
the higher you go or futher you go with evolution means
the newer adaptations, because physically on humans the higher you go up the spinal cord and then the furhter you go forward in the brain is the newest.
central nervous system (CNS) includes
brain and spinal cord
spinal cord's function
sends info from sensory neurons to brain, relays motor commands to muscles and organs, and carries out reflexes
hind brain includes
medulla oblangata, cerebellum, and parts of reticular formation
medulla oblongata
lowest brain stem structure; extension of spinal cord to brain; controls heart beat, circulation, respiration
RAS and location
reticular activating system; network of neurons that extends form lower part of medulla in hind brain through the upper end of the midbrain
functions of reticular activating system, RAS
maintain consciousness, regulate arousal levels, and modulate activity of neurons through central nervous system
cerebellum: locations and functions
large mass at the back of brain involved with fine motor skills, movement, and later found to be involved in sensory and cognitive functions, like associating one stimulus to another
midbrain consists of
consists of tectum and tegmentum
includes structures invovled iwth hearing and seeing, though not identifying objects/sounds
includes parts of RAS and other neural structures with many functions, like orienting body and eyes towards stimuli
subcotial forebrain is involved with
sensory, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes
subcortial forebrain consists of
hypothalamus, thalamus, limbig system, and basal ganglia
regulates behaviors, like eating and lseeping, sextual activity, and emotional experience
What's the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?
they're adjacent to each other, and the hypothalamus activates the pituatary hormones to regulate eating sleeping, sexual activity, etc.
thalamus' function
process/filters sensory info and sends it to the higher brain
limbic system's functions
invovle emotion, motviation, learning, adn memory
limbic system includes
septal area, amygdala, and hyppocampus
septal area's function
learning from experiences with emotions attached
"emotionally significant learning"
amygadala's function
links emotions to events. recognizes emotions, especially fear.
stores new info in memory so person can later consciously remember it
cerebral cortex' physical description
thin layer of inter-neurons, like crumpled piece of paper
3 functions of cerebral cotex
1-allows flexible construction of voluntary movements, lke piano playing
2-permits subtle discriminations among complex sensory patterns, like diff. between gem and germ
3-allows for symbolic thinking (theoretical thought or meaning of a flag)
convulsions of cerebral cortex can be divided into ___ and ___, which mean
primary areas of cortex' funtion
process raw sensory info and in one section they initiate movement
association areas' function
invovled in complex mental proceses, lke forming perceptions, ideas, and plans
deep sulcus (valley)
cerebral hemisphere
two rougly symetrical halves of cerebrum
longitudal fissure
separates halves of brain
corpus callosum
band of neutral fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres
each hemisphere has _ lobes
occipital lobe
responsible for vision
occipital lobe's pirmary areas get input from
visual association cortex is in the ____ lobe
visual association cortex connects ____ and ____
sounds and sights
polysensory areas are
areas like visual assoc. cortex that receive info from more than one sensory system
parietal lobe is responsible for
touch, detecting movement, awareness of one's body in space, and locating objects in space
somatosensory cortex: primary or assoc., function, and location
primary area of brain that receives info from different parts of body with its homonculus in parietal lobe
homonculus and location
upside down man in your brain with giant testicles and tongue
there's one for feeling, in the somtosensory cortex, and one for moving , in the motor cortex.
frontal lobes
responsible for motion, social skills, some aspects of personality, and abstract thought
frontal lobes are ____ to central fissure
motor cotex
primary zone in frontal lobe that initiates voluntary movements and has a homonculus
Broca's area: location and function
located in L frontal lobe
responsible for forming words and understanding/using grammar
Broca's aphasia
people who can understand simple sentences, but are unable to articulate anything or form grammatical sentences
Temporal lobe is essential to _____ and ______ and it also plays a role in ______
audition and language
info processing
most ____ functions are in L hemisphere of temporal lobe
Wernicke's area: location and function
in L temoral lobe
responsible for language comprehension
wernicke's apahsia is
when ppl have difficulty understanding what words and sentences mean and speak fluently, but only senseless "word salad"
info processed in the back of your temporal lobe is ______, while in the front of your temporal lobe its _____
basic, specific, concrete, while ...abstract, integrated
how does the precentral gyrus motor and the post gyrus sensory homonuclui physically relate to each other
by lining up