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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Consumer Responses
*Affective (Feelings)
Positive or
Negative
Feelings
(e.g., happy, sad)
*Cognitive (Thoughts)
Beliefs, opinions,
attitudes, and
intentions
*Conative (Behaviors)
Purchase decisions
and
Consumptionrelated
practices
Personal Variables
(Individual Differences)
– Internal to specific individuals
– Intelligence, interests, preferences, etc.
– e.g., One person shops more carefully
than another
Situational Variables
– External: in the environment
– Include 4 Ps: Product, Price, Place, and
Promotion
– e.g., Buying a house can be more serious
than buying a computer.
Correlational Relationships
Positive Ad/Sales Correlation

Increase in Advertising
leads to...
Increase in Sales
or:
Increase in sales
leads to...
Increase in Advertising
_____________________________
Confounding variable:
(ex: population
->churches
->crime)
Causal Relationships
Cause
(Independent variable)
leads to...
Effect
(Dependent variable)
_____________________________
Causation Requires That:
1. Two variables are correlated
2. Cause (Independent Variable/IV)
Precedes
Effect (Dependent Variable/DV)
3. Control for effects of other
variables
Confounding Variable
Ex: As the number of churches increased in a city, so did the number of crimes. This doesn't necessarily mean the number of churches cause the increase in crime. *Population* is the confounding variable because it is actually the increase of population that causes the increase of churches and crime.
Independent Variable
Cause in a Causal Relationship
Experimentation:
* Manipulate IV to assess effect on DV
Dependent Variable
Effect in a Causal Relationship
Experimentation:
* Manipulate IV to assess effect on DV
Random Assignment
 Participants grouped by chance
 Controls for Individual Differences among participants
 e.g., If those who saw the ad have more money or
are more compulsive, that could explain our results.
 With random assignment, those with money or
compulsiveness are just as likely as not to see the ad.
Participant backgrounds cancel out
Limits of Attention
Limited Cognitive Capacity
Miller’s (1956) Magic Number 7:
7 + or - 2 units of info at a time
Attention Intensity
Amount of attention we can pay to an ad
Also limited by cognitive capacity
______________________________
Attention Factors
1. Prior Knowledge/Expertise:
More and larger “chunks” of info.
2. Arousal (How awake or alert we are):
What kind of relationship?
Arousal
How awake or alert we are

*Attention vs. Intensity:
“Inverted U” pattern on graph
Selective Attention
Allocation of effort.
It’s “where we put our
attention, and where our
attention goes”
-----------------------------
1. Voluntary attention
currently relevant information
Momentary Predispositions
(e.g., in the market for a cell phone)
2. Involuntary attention
a. Salience (Context Dependent):
difference from surroundings.
Vividness
2. Involuntary attention
(Continued)
Enduring Predispositions
(e.g., chronic back pain)
b. Vividness (Person Dependent):
• personally or emotionally interesting
• concrete or imagery provoking
• sensory, spatial, and temporal
proximity
Salience
*Salient stimuli
capture the attention of
all people some of the time.
(Vivid stimuli
get the attention of
some people all of the time.)
Comprehension
Relating new info to info
stored in memory, or
“meaning making”
Cognitive Capacity
With limited cognitive
capacity, we aren’t always
able to “un-believe.”
e.g., Info Overload
(Distraction) and Time pressure
Miller’s Magic Number
7 +/- 2
Comprehension & Belief
Comprehension and belief are
inseparable, at least initially.
Rejecting a false claim requires
a second step!
Repetition & Belief
*If we can’t remember whether a claim
is true, we’ll assume it is.
*Increases our tendency to believe by
increasing familiarity.
Otherwise, why remember it?
Pragmatic Inferences
everyday
assumptions about claims that are
literally true but figuratively false.
e.g., using the word “may”, as in
“Brand X may help relieve pain.”
Comparison Omission
leave out object
of comparison so consumers fill in the
blank with a competing product.
e.g. “Brand X gives you greater mileage”
(than other kinds of gasoline).
Piecemeal Data
Compare specific
attributes of one product to several
different products so people infer your
product is better than all others.
*“More head room than Mercedes, more leg
room than Cadillac, and more trunk space
than a BMW…”
Juxtaposition of Imperatives
place
two statements together so that
people infer one leads to the other
*“Be popular!
Brush with Ultra Brite!”
Affirmation of the Consequent
common logical fallacy that
“If p, then q” means “if q, then p.”
*If I look younger, then I use Oil of Olay.
If I use Oil of Olay, then I look younger.
Deceptive Advertising
Advertising can be:
*Deceptive and false
*Deceptive and true
*Nondeceptive and true
*Nondeceptive and false
Short-Term Memory
(Conscious Awareness/
Attention -- Thinking)
-------------------------------
1. Encoding:
placing STM info into LTM.
Works through two sub-operations:
a. Rehearsal: repeating in your head.
b. Coding: relating new info to old info.
2. Retrieval:
bringing LTM info into STM.
Two major types:
a. Recognition: noticing present info as
familiar.
b. Recall: naming info when not present.
Can be aided (cues) or unaided (none).
Long-Term Memory
(Encoded info storage)
-------------------------------
1. Encoding:
placing STM info into LTM.
Works through two sub-operations:
a. Rehearsal: repeating in your head.
b. Coding: relating new info to old info.
2. Retrieval:
bringing LTM info into STM.
Two major types:
a. Recognition: noticing present info as
familiar.
b. Recall: naming info when not present.
Can be aided (cues) or unaided (none).
Organization Principle
Memory performance is better when
individual pieces of info are grouped together.
Encoding-Specificity Principle
Memory better when contextual cues
during both encoding and retrieval are the same.
Encoding Processes
Works through two sub-operations:
a. Rehearsal: repeating in your head.
b. Coding: relating new info to old info.
Retrieval Processes
bringing LTM info into STM.
Two major types:
a. Recognition: noticing present info as
familiar.
b. Recall: naming info when not present.
Can be aided (cues) or unaided (none).
(Un)aided Recall
Ex: What are the names of
the Seven Dwarfs?
Recognition
Ex: What are the names of the Seven Dwarfs?

Itchy Longful Sneezy
Teach Grumpy Cheery
Wheezy Stupid Stubby
Junkie Happy Doc
Slimy Nifty Shorty
Bashful Wimpy Lumpy
Sleepy Prof Hopeful
Chumpy Dopey Scratchy
Node
Organization Principle:
Memory performance is better when
individual pieces of info are grouped together (in nodes).
Association
Describes the interrelated nature of
information stored in memory:
Association: connects two nodes in memory
Node: concept, idea, or piece of info AdPsych
Class
AdPsych
Class = Boring
Associative Network
combination
of all nodes that are interrelated
with all other nodes via
associations.
-----------------------------
When a specific node is activated,
or retrieved from memory,
closely associated nodes also become activated.
Priming Effects (2 types)
Two different types:
1. Activated concepts can lead us to exaggerate
their prevalence.
How much Violence? -> Some
Violent TV Show -> How much Violence? -> A lot
(PRIME)
1. Availability Priming: Prime -> Spreading Activation
We estimate prevalence by available examples
2. Concept Priming: Accessible concepts
influence the interpretation of incoming information.
“Ocean Spray has more food energy”
food energy = power
Sunday
Night
Football
food energy =
calories
Rush
Limbaugh
Commentary
Associative Interference
Complex associative networks:
Spreading activation in many directions.
Simple associative networks:
Spreading activation in only a few directions.
So...
The bigger the network, the less likely
a specific node will be activated.
Negative Brand Associations
& Rumor Control
McDonald's example:
Rumor
Alone
Rumor
Plus
Refutation
Rumor
Plus
Associative- best
Interference
No
Rumor
Control- second best
Media Clutter
exposure to large
amounts of advertising
When many similar ads are shown
before of after ours, category networks grow. So...
e.g., Car Ads
... media clutter can make our product
less likely to be activated.
With simple category networks,
ad repetition sufficient
With complex,
differentiate our product using salient ads and
products
strengthens the association
and can cause “subcategory” creation
e.g., SUV’s, Chevy SSR
Implicit & Explicit Memory
Explicit Memory: Conscious/concerted
Memory = object.
Implicit Memory: Unconscious/automatic
Memory = tool.
Aware of memory use and can
control for memory influences on our thinking.
Unaware, so we can’t.
Source Amnesia
Unaware of where a
feeling or idea comes from.
Evaluative Judgments
Consumer attitudes about
products and issues
Attitudes: ”global” ideas about
products or issues.
Also measured on a continuum.
Valenced
“Very Bad Product to Very Good Product”
Nonevaluative Judgments
Beliefs: ideas about attributes and benefits.
Measured on a continuous scale between extremes.
Beliefs about product qualities
e.g. Very Large to Very Small
Not valenced, although it may seem so.
“Building blocks for evaluative judgments”
Types of Beliefs (3)
1) Descriptive: from direct,
firsthand experience
2) Informational: from
indirect, secondhand info.
Not as strong as descriptive.
3) Inferential: go beyond our
knowledge.
Based on correlation (price = quality),
prior knowledge (cars have four wheels),
or schemas (attribute/benefit links).
Zanna & Rempel Model
Reciprocal Relationships
Representativeness Heuristic
If new product reminds us of old one we liked,
we’ll predict we’ll like the new one, too.
Similarity-based Judgment
Even if we focus on irrelevant similarity.
e.g., Charlie’s Angels & Charlie’s Angels 2
e.g., package design
Availability Heuristic
*Memory-based Judgment
Predictions based on the
ease with which instances
are retrieved from memory.
Ex: Good Acme products come to mind easily,
so we’ll think new Acme products will be good.
Satisfaction Judgments
Satisfaction Judgments:
Attributions
Causal inferences about product performance.
External or Internal
External: fault outside oneself
Internal: fault inside oneself
Poor design = Dissatisfaction
Good Design = Satisfaction
No effect on product satisfaction
Attributions
Causal inferences about product performance.
External or Internal
Preference Judgments
Attitude-based preferences: from
comparing at the global level.
Involves direct comparisons
among products, ideas, or behaviors.
Attribute-based preferences:
from comparing various attributes.
“Attitude must be in memory.”
Expectancy Disconfirmation
1) We form product expectations
before purchase.
2) If meets or exceeds expectations,
we’re satisfied. If not, we’re not.
Expectations as
important as “reality.”
Consideration Set
*group of products considered
when making a purchase
------------------------------
Brands available
(Often 12 or more)
Consideration Set
1 (Loyal) to 9 (7+2)
Choice
(1 Brand)
Part-List Cuing
Present partial brand list to reduce number people
retrieve from memory.
Reduce consideration set &
Keep your product in:
Increases likelihood of choosing your product.
Ex:Piecemeal Data: “Brand X has more head
room than a Mercedes, more leg room than a
Cadillac, and more trunk space than a BMW.”
Attraction Effect
Adding similar but inferior product to a
line increases attractiveness of original
1) New product highlights product line and
price-quality relationship.
2) Better value product will increase in sales.
ONLY TWO similar products of ONE BRAND
e.g., Bread-maker in book
Trade-off Contrast Effect
Value even clearer when greater number
of brands considered
Similar to Attraction Effect, but
more than two products and
more than one brand.
Compromise Effect
Middle brands/products
(among three or more)
chosen more often than extremes
Extremes make middle seem like a
“safe bet.”
Stimulus & Memory Choices
Stimulus-based: all brand/attribute info present.
Easy to access diagnostic information.
e.g., in a grocery store or on the web
Memory-based Choice: no product info present.
Recall brands and diagnostic information.
e.g., at a party, wanna go out for food
-----------------------------
Mixed Choice:
Stimulus and Memory
Most common scenario:
Some info present and some recalled.
e.g. from furniture store A to B
Choose stimulus over memory brand,
even when memory brand is better.
Attitude & Attribute Heuristics
Choice Heuristics
Mental shortcuts or “quick and dirty” rules
for making choices
1) Attitude-based Heuristics: overall impressions
2) Attribute-based heuristics: specifics-based
a) Between-alternative: Many brands,
one attribute at a time
b) Within-alternative: Many attributes,
one brand at a time
------------------------------
The Attitude Heuristic
Consumers simply choose the available
brand toward which they have the
most favorable attitude
Frequency of Good and Bad
Products with the highest ratio of
good features to bad are chosen.
*Doesn’t account for importance of attributes
Within & Between Alternatives
Attribute-based heuristics: specifics-based
a) Between-alternative: Many brands,
one attribute at a time
b) Within-alternative: Many attributes,
one brand at a time
THE Attitude Heuristic
Attitude-based Heuristics:
The Attitude Heuristic
Frequency of Good and Bad
Products with the highest ratio of
good features to bad are chosen.
Consumers simply choose the available
brand toward which they have the
most favorable attitude
Doesn’t account for importance of attributes
Frequency of Good and Bad
Products with the highest ratio of
good features to bad are chosen.
Lexicographic Heuristic
Choose a brand based on
most important attribute.
(e.g., price, reliability, calories, safety, etc.).
If two top brands are equal,
the second most important is used…
Elimination-by-Aspects
Choose an attribute and eliminate brands that
don’t meet a minimum cutoff point.
(e.g., cars less than $20k)
Process repeated until
one choice remains.
(e.g., using design, safety, and so on…)
Majority of Confirming
1) Consider values of each attribute
for two brands
2) Choose brand with
greater number of superior attributes.
Does not consider how superior
each brand is on each attribute.
Dimensions
Between Alternative Attribute-based:
Majority of
Confirming Dimensions
2) Choose brand with
greater number of superior attributes.
Does not consider how superior
each brand is on each attribute.
1) Consider values of each attribute
for two brands
Conjunctive & Disjunctive
Conjuctive Heuristic:
1) Set a minimum acceptable standard
for all attributes.
2) Choose first product that
meets the standard on all.
e.g., price, trip legs, special meal, aisle seat
------------------------------
Disjunctive Heuristic:
1) Set a fairly high cutoff value for
each attribute.
2) Select first product that meets
standard on ONE attribute.
e.g., location, price, variety
Choice Strategy Determinants
1) Motivation
2) Opportunity
Both have to be HIGH to invoke effort
Exposure Control
Avoiding Unwanted Messages:
Attention and Comprehension
are factors in persuasion
* Most People Don’t Want to be
Exposed to Ads!
------------------------------
Overcoming Exposure Control is
the first step in Message-Learning
What should Advertisers do?
Design Salient or Vivid Ads
Use HUMOR for mood (Affect)
Message-Learning Approach
The Message-Learning Approach: Provides a framework for more complex theories of Persuasion
--------------------------------
Yale University Psychologists (Hovland)
Effective Persuasive communications:
Attention-drawing (Attention)
Comprehensible (Comprehension)
Convincing (Yielding)
Memorable (Retention)
Message-Learning
Approach to Persuasion
Perceived Bias
perceived: identifies the cause
Source Importance
Source Credibility:
Positively related to Acceptance
Negatively to Rejection
--------------------------------
Refers to message originator (Who?)
Many source factors affect persuasion:
Expertise
Credibility
Attractiveness
Familiarity
Source Factors
------------------------------
Attractiveness
Physical Appearance:
Denzel Washington or Flavor Flav
Presentation Style: Look to audience.
Rapid/fluid speech. Avoid “hedging.”
Similarity to Recipients?: Teenagers
------------------------------
Source Importance directly related to
Attention:
Source Noticeable = High importance
Source Hidden = Low Importance
e.g., source more important on TV as
compared to Radio Ads
Source Factors: Modifier
Stages of Digital Marketing
...
Two-sided message & limitation
Increase Source
Credibility.
Some info goes
against the
source’s
vested interest
Rational Appeals
Rational Appeals: logical arguments
Emotional Appeals
Emotional Appeals: “feeling-based”
Protection Motivation Theory
Three key variables of Fear Appeals:
Danger likelihood (%)
Coping Effectiveness (lower %?)
Self-efficacy (Easy or hard?)
Need for Cognition
a recipient factor
------------------------------
Two-Sided
Messages:
Limitation
Better if one
doesn’t like or
has no attitude,
but worse if
attitude was
favorable
Self-Monitoring
a recipient factor
Rational Appeals
Rational Appeals: logical arguments
Emotional Appeals
Emotional Appeals: “feeling-based”
Protection Motivation Theory
Three key variables of Fear Appeals:
Danger likelihood (%)
Coping Effectiveness (lower %?)
Self-efficacy (Easy or hard?)
Need for Cognition
a recipient factor
------------------------------
Two-Sided
Messages:
Limitation
Better if one
doesn’t like or
has no attitude,
but worse if
attitude was
favorable
Self-Monitoring
a recipient factor
Prior Knowledge
a recipient factor
Mediational Principle
Many psychological processes underlie
persuasion:
Perception- reception
Comprehension- reception
Retention
Retrieval
Agreement- yielding
Decision-making- yielding
Combinatory Principle
Reception and Yielding oppose one
another given any personality factor
Page 152
Situational-Weighting Principle
Reception and Yielding not always
equally important:
Simple message: Reception easy so
Yielding more important.
Complex messages (complex issue):
Reception difficult so more
important.
Message Complexity & Media
Simple message: Reception easy so
Yielding more important.
Complex messages (complex issue):
Reception difficult so more
important.
Comparative Judgment
Getting consumers to judge your
product favorably compared to others
Principle of relative judgment: make
inferior products the reference point
Principle of Relative Judgment
Principle of relative judgment: make
inferior products the reference point
Norm Theory
Norm Theory: salient/accessible
categories/stimuli
Adaptation Level Theory
Adaptation level: average of stimuli
taken into account when judging
All products can be ranked
Good/Bad
Large/Small
Expensive/Inexpensive
Social Judgment Theory
Contrast and assimilation
Attitudes as reference point
Only if in memory
Theory predicts assimilation and contrast
using Method of Ordered Alternatives
Method of Ordered Alternatives
Series of statements: very positive to
very negative
Latitude of Acceptance: Circle
Latitude of Rejection: Check
Latitude of Noncommitment: Unmarked
Self-perception Theory
When beliefs and attitudes inaccessible,
people infer them from behavior
First make a purchase;
later infer liking it
e.g., compulsive and emergency
purchases
Kelley’s Covariation Principles
Causes and effects should Covary:
cause present, effect present
cause absent, effect absent
Purchase causes:
Product
Situation
Consumer
------------------------------
Use three types of generalizable info:
Distinctiveness: different from other
products?
Consistency: same exact product
(and works) all the time?
Consensus: does everybody or nobody
buy it?
------------------------------
Kelley’s Causal Schemata
Causation based on one instance
Schemata: causal expectations from
prior experience (knowledge structures)
Kelley’s Two: Discounting
and Augmentation
Discounting Principle
As possible reasons increase,
perceived role of any one decreases
Use to lower chance of product (line)
failure attributions
e.g., product used incorrectly or
specific product had rare defect
------------------------------
Overjustification Effect
Many purchase reasons undermine
significance of a single reason
Price promotions can undercut quality
or other product attribute role.
Good in short run, bad in long...
Augmentation Principle
Strong situational constraints should
prevent event, but happens anyway:
Cause must be very powerful
Unexpected info is highly informative
Can reduce perceived bias
e.g., Two-sided Messages
------------------------------
Use Augmentation to convey high quality,
for example:
MasterLock™: “Works under fire”
Tide™: “Gets out the toughest stains”
Infomercials: Average people with no
money can strike it rich!
Overjustification Effect
Idunno...
Backward conditioning: UCS, then CS
Unconditioned stimulus pre-exposure effect: Using overly familiar UCS
Blocking: Using UCS previously associated with other CS
Latent inhibition: A CS loses its effectiveness through repeated exposure
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s (1927) experiment
*Bell- conditioned stimulus (CS)
*Food- unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
*Salivation- unconditioned response--> conditioned response
Mere Exposure Effect
“Consumers’ liking for a stimulus increases
simply by being exposed to the stimulus.”
------------------------------
Limiting Conditions
1) More pronounced for “neutral” stimuli
2) Repeated exposure strengthens
the pre-existing attitude
Ex.) like  more like, dislike  more dislike
3) Wears out with too much exposure
Excitation Transfer Theory
“Arousal (or excitation) produced by a stimulus transfers to another stimulus” ~Zillman.
Ex.) Rose Bowl  commercials
-----------------------------
Arousal is nonspecific: both positive and negative emotions are intensified
------------------------------
People are insensitive to small changes in arousal
People look for a single cause for arousal
------------------------------
Two types of arousal
1) physiological: your body recognizes arousal
2) perceived: identifies the cause
Mandler’s Theory of Emotion
Discrepancies
(Unexpected Events /Changes)
“Arousal increases as the discrepancy of
a stimulus from people’s general knowledge
increases”. ~Mandler
------------------------------
Small discrepancies  pleasant arousal
------------------------------
Large discrepancies  negative arousal
------------------------------
Interruption
“Interruptions also produce arousal.”
*But, the valence depends on whether the arousal helps to achieve a goal.
Ex.) Studying & noise vs. pleasant music
Consistency Principle
“People like consistency and
dislike inconsistency.”

Often change beliefs and attitudes to make inconsistencies seem consistent
Balance Theory
“Explains relationships as a ‘triad.’”
P = Person (You)
O = Other (Celeb)
X = Stimulus
(Brand)
------------------------------
“Imbalanced triads” lead us to modify relationships due to “unpleasant tension.”
------------------------------
balanced triads:
All “positive.”
One “positive” and two “negative.”
*We need to resolve unpleasant tension, perhaps by:
1) reforming attitudes
2) Deny other’s attitudes:
“He’s only in it for money”
3) Differentiate our attitudes
about the other:
“I like Tiger the golfer but not
Tiger the salesman.”
Cognitive Dissonance
Negative feelings arise from attitude/behavior discrepancy
Ex: “Wait a minute… I’m supposed to be an A&M fan.”
------------------------------
Postdecisional Dissonance:
*Inconsistency between decision and new belief
Ex: “I usually make good decisions.”
------------------------------
1) Rate “attractiveness” of several products
e.g.) stopwatch, portable radio, etc.
2) Choose one they like better
*high dissonance
*low dissonance
*control
3) Rate “attractiveness” of the products again
*High dissonance rated chosen product much
Higher and rejected much lower.
------------------------------
Dissonance Does Not Occur When…
We’re forced
Large incentives
Small consequences
Arousal misattributed
Attitude Functions & Appeals
Knowledge Function:
Summarize information
*Provide more facts/beliefs
2) Value Expression Function:
A way of expressing certain values
*Image-oriented appeals
3) Ego-Defense Function:
Protect ego and self-esteem
*Fear appears or Authority Figures
4) Utilitarian Function:
Response to reward or punishment
*Promote reward
Attitude-Behavior Relationships
Allport (1935):
An attitude is a “mental and neural state of readiness
to respond, organized through experience exerting a
directive and/or dynamic influence on behavior.”
Under what conditions (?)
do what types of attitudes (?)
held by what types of people (?)
lead to what types of behaviors?
Theory of Reasoned Action
Idunno...
MODE Model
(Fazio, 1990)
Proposes two different routes by
which attitudes guide behavior
1) Deliberate: effortfully consider behavior
based on specific attitude contents (like TRA)
2) Spontaneous: choose a behavior without
thoughtful deliberation (SOA or Context).
------------------------------
MODE: Motivation and
Opportunity as DEterminants
1) Motivation:
e.g., Involvement, Accountability, and Risk
2) Opportunity:
Cognitive Capacity (Processing Load), and Time
Deliberate route taken only when
Motivation and opportunity are BOTH HIGH
------------------------------
1) Self-report: Ask directly using Semantic
Differential, Likert, or Guttman Scales,etc.
-Predicts Deliberate Route well
2) Response Latency: “Prime” participants with
attitude object (product or issue), then record
TIME it takes to categorize positive or
negative adjectives (e.g., “good” or “bad”).
-Spontaneous well, but also Deliberate
Strength of Association
Idunno...
Response Latency Measures
1) Measure SOA
2) Administered Unobtrusively
Uncover “implicit” attitudes of which
we may be unaware:
Knowing or Unknowing False Representation
“I’m not telling you my attitude.”
“I’m not that kind of person.”
Elaboration Likelihood Model
(Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
Persuasion: knowledge leads to attitudes
ELM: “two routes to persuasion”
1) Central - effortfully scrutinize ads
2) Peripheral - view effortlessly
------------------------------
The Central Route
“Classic persuasion” (Message Learning)
Assimilate agreed-upon tenets from
ads into our viewpoints:
*“Illegal drug users show lower academic
achievement compared to nonusers”
*“Doing drugs can ruin your relationships with
friends and loved ones because drugs can cause
you to be paranoid and anti-social”
Role Playing
Actively presenting
persuasive arguments
Compared to Receiving Arguments:
Greater Attitude Change
Greater Attitude Stability
Mere Thought Effect
Four conditions watched Football:
1) High Prior Knowledge/Not Distracted
2) High Prior Knowledge/Distracted
3) Low Prior Knowledge/Not Distracted
4) Low Prior Knowledge/Distracted
Which Groups attitudes polarized?
1) High Prior Knowledge/Not Distracted
Indirect Persuasion
Purposely omit information to induce
consumers to draw inferences:
less info = more inferences
Explicit Conclusion: Stated in ad
Implicit Conclusion: Not stated in ad
------------------------------
Intended inferences can lead to:
Greater Persuasion: trust own
conclusions more -- less likely to
counterargue
Better Memory for implicit conclusion
Syllogistic Inference Rule
if A implies B; and
B implies C; then
A implies C
Ex: Burger King Ad
If people prefer flame-broiled Burgers and If McDonald’s and Wendy’s Fry, but Burger King flame broils then Where should people go for burgers?
Horizontal Syllogisms
Several Different Syllogisms support
same answer:
People like flame-brolied; Burger King Flame broils
People like clean restaurants; Burger King is clean
People like cheap food; Burger King is cheap
Where should people go for burgers?
Vertical Syllogisms
Premise for each sequential syllogism
builds on previous:
People do what they like on the weekends; People
cook out on the weekends
People like cooking out; Cooking out is flame-broiling
People like flame-broiling; Burger King flame-broils
Where should people go for burgers?
Syllogism Influence Modifiers
Situational Modifiers
Better when people actively
attend. Why?
Need to follow the message to infer
Better when inference is easy
to make
------------------------------
Individual Modifiers
Need for Cognition:
High attend more actively
Self-monitoring:
Low use own conclusions
Creative Brief
Duh.
Account Planning Research
(Qualitative v. Quantitative)
Non-numbers vs. Numbers
Automaticity Principle
Automaticity = “Mindless” Responses
Relies on Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts
When are people likely to use
heuristics?
Understanding which Heuristics people
use leads to greater sales
Persuasion Heuristics
Beliefs and Attitudes
“Experts are usually correct”:
Mike likes Nike & Gatorade
“Length implies Strength”:
Here are 87 reasons why...
What ELM Route?
Influence Heuristics
Behavior
The “Because” Heuristic:
Almost any reason to behave in a certain
way can influence behavior
e.g., Copy machine study: Good reasons
and Placebic reasons increase
compliance, but Bad reasons don’t
Larger requests need better reasons
------------------------------
Price-Quality Heuristic: We assume
higher-priced products are better
quality
i.e., Price implies Quality
Ross vs. K-mart vs. Foleys vs. Macy’s
Honda vs. Jaguar
Gateway vs. Apple
Because Heuristic
Idunno...
Prediction Heuristics:
Likelihood Judgments
Representativeness: a new product
reminds us of an old one we liked - we
predict that we’ll like the new one, too
Availability: many high quality Brand X
products come to mind easily - we
predict new Brand X products will be
high in quality, too
Price-Quality Heuristic
Idunno...
Prediction Heuristics:
Likelihood Judgments
Representativeness: a new product
reminds us of an old one we liked - we
predict that we’ll like the new one, too
Availability: many high quality Brand X
products come to mind easily - we
predict new Brand X products will be
high in quality, too
Commitment & Consistency
We want to display consistent beliefs,
attitudes, and behaviors
e.g., Carson droning on about Apple
and using Macs only
------------------------------
Foot-in-the Door Technique
A small request followed by a LARGER
one -- AFTER “yes”
e.g., Canvassers, Telemarketers
Self-perception theory most accepted
explanation
------------------------------
Low-Ball Technique
First make a deal; then change it
Seen as ONE transaction, NOT TWO
Also known as Bait-and-Switch
e.g., Used Cars, Electronics
------------------------------
Foot-in-the-Door
vs. Low-Ball:
Three conditions for displaying poster
Control: Go down, get, and display?
Foot-in-the-door: Display poster?
Go down and get.
Low-Ball: Will you help? Then all.
Most Compliance from Low-Ball
------------------------------
Commitment Theory:
Explains Low-Ball
Commitment Theory: imparts
resistance to change
“Yes” in PERCEIVED same deal makes
decision less changeable
We don’t often rethink new decision
outside context of the old
Foot-in-the-Door Technique
A small request followed by a LARGER
one -- AFTER “yes”
e.g., Canvassers, Telemarketers
Self-perception theory most accepted
explanation
Low-ball Technique
First make a deal; then change it
Seen as ONE transaction, NOT TWO
Also known as Bait-and-Switch
e.g., Used Cars, Electronics
Reciprocity Principle
When someone does you a favor, you
feel obligated to return it
We can be influenced into giving MORE
than we get
Can work simply by seeming reasonable,
or giving in
Door-in-the-Face Technique
Reciprocity Principle:
Door-in-the-face Technique
Reverse of Foot-in-the-Door
Follow a LARGE request with a
small one -- after “no”
Same individual must make both
requests
------------------------------
Foot-in-the-door vs.
Door-in-the-face:
Three conditions for distributing fliers
Control: Distribute 15?
Foot-in-the-door: Answer driving
safety questions? (Yes) Distribute 15?
Door-in-the-Face: Keep record of
traffic flow for two hours? (No)
Distribute 15?
That’s-not-all Technique
Reciprocity Principle:
That’s-not-all Technique
e.g., Ginsu Knives
Deal changed into an even better deal
before consumer can respond
Adaptation level: first deal sets the tone
------------------------------
Door-in-the-Face vs.
That’s-not-all:
That’s not all works better than
Door-in-the-face
Most likely because being reasonable
without prompting
Even-a-penny Technique
Seem reasonable by making extremely
small requests
legitimizes small contributions
Increases compliance with
NO DECREASE in average donation
Scarcity Principle
Valuable objects are rare, so (artificially)
rare objects seem valuable
Limit Production (e.g. Mustang Cobra)
Limit Distribution (e.g., Von Dutch)
Collector’s/Limited Editions
e.g., Yu-Gi-Oh!, Beanie Babies
Social Validation Principle
Works by using Consensus:
“Over 1 Billion Served”
“Best-selling Truck 3 Years Running”
Canned Laughter
Study of helping others
The perceived validity of an idea
increases with number of supporters
------------------------------
Social Validation:
Public vs. Private
Compliance: Express attitudes to
get rewards, avoid punishment, or
“look good”
Public Only -- Not “true” feelings
Internalization: actually agreeing.
Usually from identification.
Public AND Private
Confusion Principle
Confuse with (irrelevant) details, then
simplify the message
“Disrupt-then-reframe”:
Low- to High-level Arguments
Need for Closure
*e.g., Electronics Salespeople & Mechanics
Online Consideration Set &
Prior Knowledge
Ex: looking up information on three specific camcorders online before buying one of them.
Cookie & Pop-up Blockers
Duh. Exposure Control
Cost Transparency
Comparison shopping made easy
• e.g., Circuit City, Best Buy, J&R, etc.
• Increased Price Sensitivity
• Decreased Profit margins
• Increased Competition
• Interactive Decision Aids, (e.g., BizRate)
Self-Determination Theory
Intrinsic Motivation: Shopping “for the fun of it”
• Autonomy: enough information
• Belongingness: feeling of “community”
• Competence: Navigation should be intuitive, and
proper information should be given at right time
• e.g., Amazon.com