Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/111

Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sense
system that translates info from outside the nervous system into neural activity
sensations
messages from senses
light
form of energy called electromagnetic radiation
accessory structures
modify environmental energy before the energy is actually detected by the sensory system
transduction
transformation of incoming energy into neural activity
sensory receptors
specialized cells that detect different forms of energy
-responds best to changes in enviro.
adaptation
sensory systems gradually respond less when stimuli do not change
sensory nerves
carry the output from receptors to the CNS and brain
coding
change of an object's physical traits into a pattern of neural activity that precisely IDs those physical traits
doctrine of specific nerve energies
each sensory system will produce codes ony for tha sense
temporal codes
cause changes in neural activity rates on training
spatial codes
represented by the physical location of neural activity
contralaterality
nerve fibers from each side of the body cross on their way to the thalamus
topographical representations
brain has maps of each sense
primary cortex
area that recieves input directly from the thalamus for the sense
light
form of energy called electromagnetic radiation
sense
system that translates info from outside the nervous system into neural activity
sensations
messages from senses
accessory structures
modify environmental energy before the energy is actually detected by the sensory system
transduction
transformation of incoming energy into neural activity
sensory receptors
specialized cells that detect different forms of energy
-responds best to changes in enviro.
adaptation
sensory systems gradually respond less when stimuli do not change
sensory nerves
carry the output from receptors to the CNS and brain
coding
change of an object's physical traits into a pattern of neural activity that precisely IDs those physical traits
doctrine of specific nerve energies
each sensory system will produce codes ony for tha sense
temporal codes
cause changes in neural activity rates on training
spatial codes
represented by the physical location of neural activity
contralaterality
nerve fibers from each side of the body cross on their way to the thalamus
topographical representations
brain has maps of each sense
primary cortex
area that recieves input directly from the thalamus for the sense
light
form of energy called electromagnetic radiation
cornea
an accessory structure of the eye. a curved, transparent, protective layer that light rays enter through
pupil
opening behind the cornea
iris
adjusts the amount of light allowed in the eye
lens
directly behind pupil, curved to bend light rays
retinas
surface at the back of the eye
accommodation
ability to change shape of lens to focus objects on retina
visual transduction
conversion of light energy into neural activity
-takes place in retina
photoreceptors
specialized cells in the retina that convert light energy into neural activity
photopigments
chemicals that respond to light
dark adaptation
increasing ability to see in the dark over time
cones
part of the retina, uses 1 of 3 varieties of rodopsin photopigments, each of which is sensitive to different light wavelengths
rods
part of the retina that uses the photopigment rhodopsin which is much more light-sensitive but cannot tell colors
optic nerve
formed by the axons of the ganglion cells and extend from the eye and into the brain
receptive field
the stimulus characteristic that neuron responds to optimally
optic nerve
axons from ganglion cells a bundle of fibers and exits the eyeball
lateral geniculate nucleus
where axons from most of the ganglion cells in te retina send messages
hue
the essential color, determined by the dominant wavelength
sensation
purity of color
brightness
intensity of the wavelength
additive color mixing
the effects of each lights wavelengths are added together
subtractive color mixing
two paints absorb/subtract more wavelengths of light than either does alone- black
synesthesia
senses interact because brain areas that process color are near areas that process letters and numbers
computational approach
studies the computations a machine would have to do to solve perceptual problems
constructivist approach
reality is constructed from fragments of sensory info which the perceptual process give meanings
ecological approach
stimuli directly gives the cues needed to make sense of the world
pschophysics
the relationship between physical energy in the environment and psychological experience of it
absolute threshold
the minimum detectable amount of energy a sensory system can detect 50% of the tme
subliminal stimuli
stimuli that falls below threshold
supraliminal stimuli
stimuli that fall above the threshold
sensitivity
a person's ability to pick out a particular stimulus or signal
internalnoise
random firing of neurons; always present and constantly changing
response criterion
willingness or reluctance to say that a stimulus is present
false alarm
no signal is presented, but noise levels are so high that the participant decides that there was a signal
miss
a signal occurs but it is so faint that it does not produce enough perceptual stimulation for detection
hit
when a signal occurs and the participant detects it
just-noticeable difference
the smallest difference between stimuli that we can detect
weber's law
the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus
magnitude estimation
how perception of stimulus intensity is related to actual stimuli strength
fechner''s law
as stimulus magnitude increases, an increase in physical energy is necessary to obtain equal changes in perceived magnitude
stevens's power law
includes a factor that takes into account the different sensitivity of various sensory systems
perceptual organization
determines what stimuli are together to from an object
figure-ground organization
the perceptual apparatus automatically picks out some objects or sounds to be figures while others are relegated to be the ground
gestalt psychology
perceive sights and sounds as organized wholes
grouping
properties of stimulus environment lead to grouping them together
proximity
closer objects or events more likely to be perceived to be part of a group
similarity
similar elements perceived to be part of a group
continuity
sensations that appear to creat a continuous are perceieved as belonging together
closure
tend to fill in missing contours to form a complete object
common fate
sets of objects moving in the same direction at the same speed are perceived as a group
likelihood principle
perceived objects in the way that experience tells us is the most likely physical arrangement
simplicity principle
organize stimulus elements in a way that gives the simplest possible perception
auditory sense analysis
perceptual process of mentally representing and interpreting sounds
2-D location
brain estimates an object's tru location relative to the body, taking into account where the image strikes the retina and adjusts it based on info about movement of the eyes and head
visual dominance
bias of using visual info when it conflicts with info from another sense
accomodation
the muscles surrounding the lens either lighten (close) or relax (distant)
convergence
eyes rotate inward to project the image of an object on each retina
binocular disparity
the difference between the two retinal images of an object provides distant cues
looming
rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the reina, is automatically percieved as an approaching stimulus and not an expanding object
stroboscopic motion
tendency to interpret as continuous motion a series of still images flashed in rapid succesion
perceptual constancy
perception of objects as constant in size, shape, color, and other properties despite changes in their retinal image
size
as objects move closer or farther away the brain percieves the change in distance and automatically adjust the perception
shape
even though the shape of an object's retinal image chhanges it's shape stays the same
brightness
as the amount of light striking an object changes it's perceived brightness remains constant
top-down processing
guides by knowledge, expectations and other psychological factors
bottom-up processing
relies or specific detailed info elements that are integrated and assembled into a whole by sensory receptors
feature detectors
cortical cells that fire in response to only certain basic features
schemas
mental representations of what we know and have come to expect about the world
perceptual set
a bias to perceive a stimulus in a certain way
motivation
factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistance of behavior
motives
provide a reason for why someone does something
size
as objects move closer or farther away the brain percieves the change in distance and automatically adjust the perception
shape
even though the shape of an object's retinal image chhanges it's shape stays the same
brightness
as the amount of light striking an object changes it's perceived brightness remains constant
top-down processing
guides by knowledge, expectations and other psychological factors
bottom-up processing
relies or specific detailed info elements that are integrated and assembled into a whole by sensory receptors
feature detectors
cortical cells that fire in response to only certain basic features
schemas
mental representations of what we know and have come to expect about the world
perceptual set
a bias to perceive a stimulus in a certain way
motivation
factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistance of behavior
motives
provide a reason for why someone does something