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82 Cards in this Set

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maslow's heirarchy of needs
~self-actualization
~self-esteem
~love and belonging
~safety and security
~physiological
behaviorist modification
~changes behavior by using learning theory
~replaces maladaptive behavior w/healthy, more appropriate behavior
reconditioning
~unlearning old habits
reinforcement
~increasing the chance that behavior will occur again
psychological development
~psychosocial tasks are accom thruout the lifespan
piaget
sensorimotor
~0-2yrs
~uses senses/motor abilities 2 understand the world (reflexes and coordinates sensorimotor skills)
~develops schema
~begins 2 interact w/enviro
~object permanence
~mental representation
~develops thinking and goal-directed behavior
object permanence
~learns that an object still exists when it is out of sight
mental representation
~begins to remember and imagine experiences
piaget
preoperational thought
~2-6yrs
~develops egocentric thinking
~uses trial/error 2 discover new traits/charac
~concepts time as limited 2 present
~uses symbols 2 rep objects
~centers on single aspect of an object, producing some distortion of reality
~gains in imaginative ability
~grad begins 2 "de-center" (becomes less egocentric; understands other pts of view)
egocentric thinking
~understands the world from only one perspective
piaget
concrete operational thought
~7-11yrs
~understands/applies logical operations/principles 2 help interpret specific experiences or perceptions
~better understands other viewpoints
~improves use of memory
~focus on more than one task
~recog cause/effect relationships
~identifies behavior outcome
~understands basic convers, number classification, other concrete ideas
piaget
formal operational thought
~12yrs+
~uses systematic, scientific prob-solv approach
~recog past, present, future
~able 2 think about abstractions & hypothetical concepts
~able 2 move thought "from real 2 possible"
~becomes more interested in ethics, politics, all social/moral issues as ability to take broader/more theoretical approach 2 experience incr
ID
~basic innate drive 4 survival/pleasure
~demands constant gratification
~composes individ's entire personality @ birth
~goals: reduce tension, incr pleasure, minimize discomfort
EGO
~reality factor
~decides how 2 act, when 2 act
~stands w/reason and good sense
SUPEREGO
~parenteral/societal value system
~strives 4 perfection/morality
~serves as a judge or censor over thoughts and activities fo the ego
~conscience, self-observation, formation of ideals
treatment modes
crisis intervention
~brief therapy, 6wks
~s/s of stress: phy feelings, fear, anxiety, panic, desire 4 help, decr concentration & efficiency
~focus on one prob, not cause
~need 4 support/empathy
~client responsibility 2 act
~use all available resources
crisis
~sudden event in one's life when usual decision-making & prob-solv is not adeq
treatment modes
group therapy
~5-8people interacting over time 2 achieve individual goals
~set limits, here & now focused, provide safety, provide consistency
treatment modes
self help groups
~mutural support, lay people
~12-step (AA, OA, Alanon, Alateen, CA), recovery, LaLeche, Ostomy
treatment modes
family therapy
~psychotherapy w/family
~identified patient
~scapegoating: object of blame or aggression
~changes in one member changes the whole family system
~family involv necessary
~mixed messages: verbal expressions of caring @ conflict w/nonverbal actions
treatment modes
milieu therapy
~french word means "surroundings"
~individ tx plans
~entire surroundings is import
~client takes responsibility
~nx guides in develop new ways of interacting, responding
treatment modes
expressive therapy
~adjunctive therapies used 2 aid in assess
~dance, recreation, occupational, art
mental health-illness continuum
mental health
~love, work, play
~coping mechanisms good
~have a sense of meaning of life
~grasp of reality
~caring 4 others
mental health-illness continuum
mental illness
~maladaptive behavior
~disruption in ability 2 relate 2 others
~inability 2 meet basic needs in a socially acceptable way
sublimation
~directing energy 4m unacceptable drives in2 socially acceptable behavior
~EX: sports as an outlet 4 aggression
isolation
~response in which person blocks feelings assoc w/unpleasant experience
~EX: talking about a traumatic even unemotionally
reaction formation
~displaying overt behavior or attitudes in precisely the opposite direction of one's unacceptable conscious or unconscious impulses
~EX: feeling compassion 4 a rival person you dislike
undoing
~a compulsive response which negates or reverses a previous unacceptable act
~EX: washing hands of guilt after touching germs
compensation
~putting forth extra effort 2 achieve in the aras where one has a real or imagined deficiency
~EX: an unpopular student excels as a scholar
projection
~transferring own internal feelings to someone else
~EX: "i have him" reversed in2 "He hates me"
introjection
~incorporating the traits of others
~EX: a depressed client causes the nurse to become depressed
suppression
~the conscious, deliberate forgetting of unacceptable or painful thoughts, impulses, acts
repressions
~the unconscious, involuntary forgetting of unacceptable or painful thoughts, impulses, feelings, or actions
~EX: forgetting what was on a difficult exam
denial
~asserting that what is obviously true is not true; in fact something quite different is true
rationalization
~giving a believable person for ones behavior instead of a true reason
~EX: i failed the NCLEX because it is a poor test
regression
~going back to an early level of emotional development
~EX: becoming dependent for all decisions
fixation
~never advancing to the next level of emotional development andorganization
~arrested at a fixed level
~displacement
~transferring painful feeings to a neutral object, phobias
~EX: anger at brother, so you kicked the dog
identification
~adopting characteristics of another, generally someone who possesses attributes that are admired or envied
communication techniques
offering self
~"i'll stay with you"
communication techniques
focusing
~on "here and now"
~on the client
communication techniques
broad openings
~"how are things doing today?"
communication techniques
clarifying
~"What does that mean to you?"
communication techniques
stating the observed
~"you look tired"
communication techniques
reflecting and restating
~client: "my mother makes me so mad when she criticizes my kids"
~nurse: "you were angry with you mother when she started picking on your kids"
communication techniques
valiating
~"are you saying..."
communication techniques
empathy
~stating a feeling implied by the client
communication techniques
confronting
~sharing perceptions of someone's behavior to point out discrepancies btwn what is said and done
communication techniques
proceeding
~through descriptions & thoughts 2 feelings
communication techniques
giving information
~
communication techniques
silence
~thought, pacing, acceptance
communication techniques
questions
~who, what, when, where
~why - defensive
~yes - no
~nonincriminating
communication techniques
summarizing
~
blocks to communication
~false reassurance
~agreeing & disagreeing
~advice
~judging
~belittling
~defending
~changing the subject
~ignoring the client
~changing client's words or assuming feelings
~approval
~focus on nurse
levels of anxiety
mild (+)
~min muscle tension
~preceptual field broad
~learning can occur
~restlessness/heighted ability 2 deal w/prob
~NI: listen, stay calm
levels of anxiety
moderate (++)
~incr tension, HA, fatigue, butterflies
~perceptual field narrowed
~focus on immediate events
~NI: discuss in rational, calm manner
levels of anxiety
severe (+++)
~incr BP, TPR, diaphoresis, dry mouth, somatic symptoms
~preceptual field greatly decr, connections btwn details not perceived
~feelings of incr threat
~incr phy activity
~NI: very calm, brief info, reassurance
levels of anxiety
panic (++++)
~may be hypertensive, motor coordination poor, cool, clammy, dread, horrow, hyperventilation
~perceptual field closed, details out of proportion, logical thinking impaired
~feelings of helplessness, may strike physically or w/draw, voice high
~NI:isolate 4m stimuli, stay w/pt
anxiety disorders
~disorders charac by fear which is out of proportion to external events
panic disorders
~recurring panic attacks or episodes of intense fear
~accompanied by physical symptoms that strike often and without warning
obsessive-compulsive disorder
~distressing repetitive thoughts, impulses or images that are intense, frightening, absurd, or unusual
~thoughts are followed by ritualized actions that are usually bizarre and irrational
phobic disorder
~intense but unrealistic fear that can interfere with the ability to socialize, work, or go about everyday life, brought on by an object, event or situation
psychophysiological disorder
~a group of stress-related medical disorders
schizophrenia
etio
~a group of psychotic d/o charac by regression, thought disturb, dizarre dress/behav, poverty of speech, w/drawl
schizophrenia
NI
~prov physical care
~est trust
~safety
~orient 2 reality
~prov structure
~involve family
~interactions should be simple, short, concrete
schizophrenia
NI - hallucinations
~distraction
~do not confront
~point out you do not share same perception
~get to feeling level
suspicious/paranoid disorders
~slow development of a permanent and unshakable delusional system accompanied by very clear and orderly thinking
blood alcohol concentration
~means # of mg of alcohol diluted in each 100ml of blood
~0.10% BAC legal level for driving
delirium
~acute brain syndrome
~rapid onset usually temp and reversible
dementias
~slow onset, progressive, irreversible
anorexia
~refusal to eat
~pursuit of thinness
bulimia
~bing-purge cycle of eating
kubler ross
denial & isolation
~"no not me", "there must be a mistake"
~buffer to shielf self until individ is able to mobilize alternate defense
kubler ross
anger
~"why me?"
~hostility may be directed toward caregivers or loved ones
kubler ross
bargaining
~"yes, but"
~bargaining is often made w/god
~an attempt to postpone death and is a pos way 2 maintain hope
kubler ross
depression
~"yes, me"
~saddness and grief
~time of introspection
~usually request only significant others to be w/them
~struggles w/painful realities of life and prep 4 death
kubler ross
acceptance
~"i am ready"
~revolved 2 the fact that death is imminent
~peaceful acceptance
~pos feelings rep
martocchio
shock and disbelief
~"maybe this is not happening"
~"this is just a dream"
~survivors feel a sense of unreality
~often reject offers of comfort/support
martocchio
yearning and protest
~"why do i feel this way?"
~survivors may express anger toward the deceased for leaving them
martocchio
anguish, disorganization, despair
~"living is a chore"
~"all the joy is gone out of life"
~reality and permanency of the loss are recognized
martocchio
identification in bereavement
~"i am just like him"
~"i will carry on her (dying person's) goals"
~bereaved may adopt behavior, ideals, mannyisms, or goals of the deceased
martocchio
reoganization and restitution
~"life goes on"
~"the sun has risen on a new day"
~life stabilizes but some of the pain of loss may last for a lifetime