Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/23

Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Percentage of hospitalized psych patients with comorbid substance abuse disorde?
35%
Drug tolerance?
decrease in drug effect with fixed dose
Drug dependence?
adapted drug target that occurs in response to prolonged & excessive drug administration
Drug addiction?
loss of control over compulsive drug use despite negative consequences
Physical dependence?
physical adaptation to substance, withdrawal and tolerance occur
Psychological dependence?
emotional state of craving
Sx of withdrawal?
tremor, HTN, hypotension, agitation, hallucinations, craving, anxiety, tachycardia, bradycardia, insomnia, N/V, seizures, delirium
Variables that increase dependence & addiction
drug: lipid solubility, rapid onset, short half-life

user: polymorphisms, anxiety, insomnia
Risk Fx for developing SA disorder
early use, use of gateway drugs, agressive behavior, family stressors, peer group drug use, genetic
What are gateway drugs?
EtOH, nicotine, marijuana
When does substance abuse develop?
late teens-early 20s
How do reinforcing properties of drug alter NTs?
Increased DA in nucleus accumbens supporting reward and reinforcement
What is effect of increased DA in n.a.?
lays down memories of rapid sense of satisfaction, creating a conditioned response; craving results from DA release
Which drugs have greatest physical and psychological dependence?
CNS depressants
Which drugs have greatest tolerance?
stimulants and opioids
Which drugs have no physical dependence?
hallucinogens
On which receptors do opiods work?
dopamine, opioid
On which receptors do cannabanoids work?
dopamine, cannabanoids
On which receptors does ethanol work?
5HT, GABA, NMDA, dopamine, opioid
On which receptors do stimulants work?
dopamine, 5HT, NE
Origins of withdrawal?
removal of dependent drug, CNS hyperarousal due to adaptation to absence of drug
Which drugs are lethal in withdrawal?
BZD, alcohol, barbiturates
EtOH withdrawal effects?
CNS: sleep changes,irritability, seizures, tremor, hallucinations
ANS: tachycardia, HTN, hyperthermia, diaphoresis