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51 Cards in this Set

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What do EEG's Measure and Show?
Measure - Brain wave activity
Show - brain waves systematically change throughout sleep.
Freuds oppinion of dreams?
Dreams are symbolic representation of our unconcious sexual and aggressive drives.
What are the two types of sleep?
NREM
REM
What occurs in the brain during REM Sleep?
Heightened body and brain activity, when dreaming occurs.
Which stage represents the onset of sleep?
Stage 2 NREM
What stages are associated with deep sleep?
NREM 3 and 4
During what stages are there a decrease in during your lifespan?
REM and stages 3 & 4 NREM
As blood levels of melatonin decrease what increases?
Mental alertness and wakefulness.
What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus and what does it regulate?
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain. Regulates the circadian rhythms.
What are circadian rhythms?
A cycle that is 24 hours, involved in fluctiuations in biological and psychological processes.
What is the restorative theory of why we sleep?
THe theory that sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mential functioning.
What is the adaptive theory of why we sleep?
Unique sleep patterns of different animals evolved over time to help promote surivival and enviromental adaptation.
What is insomnia?
A condition in which a person experiences a regular inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequatly rested by sleep.
What is narcolepsy?
A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day.
What is latent content?
Freud's theory- Unconcious wishes, thoughtss, and urges that are concealed in the manifest content of a dream.
What is manifest content?
The elements of a dream that are conciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer.
What type of waves are asscoiated with Stage 1 NREM Sleep?
A mixture of alpha and theta waves.
What type of waves are associated with Stage 2 NREM Sleep?
Theta brain waves and beginings of delta waves.
What type of waves are associated with Stage 3 NREM Sleep?
Mixture of theta and delta brain waves.
What type of waves are associated with Stage 4 NREM Sleep?
Delta brain waves.
What type of waves are associated wtih REM Sleep?
Fast active brain waves.
How do psychoactive drugs influence brain activity?
By altering the synaptic transmission between neurons.
What does caffeine do?
Stimualates the cerbal cortex, resulting in increased mental alertness and wakefulness.
What is drug dependence?
A condition in which a person has physically adpated to a drug, sot that they must take the drug regularly in order to avoid withdrawl symptoms
What is withdrawal?
Unpleasant physical reactions, combined with intense drug cravings, that occur when a person abstains from a drug, her or she is dependent on.
What is tolearance?
A condition in which increasing amounts of a physially addictive drug are needed to produce the original, desired effect.
What are the most widely used psychoactive substances?
Cafiene and Alcohol
What are some of the possible effects that can be induced by hypnosis?
Sensory and Perceptual changes (temporary blindness, deafness)
Hallucenations
and behavior outside the hypnotic state
What are the major categories of psychoactive drugs?
Depressants
Opiates
Stimulants
Psychedelic drugs
How does Jung's interpretation of dreams differ from Freud's?
Freud believes dreams contain two components.
No mention of Jung..So..uh..S.O.L
What is learning?
A Process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
What is conditioning?
A type of learning.
What are the two types of conditioning?
Classical and Operant
What are the characteristics of classical conditioning?
repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elictis elicits the same response.
What are the characteristics of operant conditioning?
learning of active , voluntary behaviors that are shaped and maintained by their consequences.
Classical conditioning is to ____ behavior as operant conditioning is to ______ behavior
reflexive
voluntary
What is the Little Albert Study?
1920's experiment that attempted to prove that human emotions could be thought of as reflexive responses. Involved a nine month old child, and a furry white rat. Considered unethical today.
What is stimulus generalization?
The occurence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus, but to other similar stimuli as well.
What is watson's effect on advertising?
Associating a response of feeling to a product. Used fear to make consumers by products. Also used "Sex appeal"
What is Pavlov's experiment with dogs?
Used a bell a food to create classical conditioning. Ringing bell made the dog salivate.
What is operant?
Skinner's term for a voluntary behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences.
What is Thomdike's Law of Effect
A learning principle - Responses followed by a positive effect become strenghtend and are more likely to recur in a particular situation.
Is punishment an effective way of shaping behavior?
No. Punishment does not teach a new more appropiate response, and is often only temporary.
What is shaping?
An operant conditioning procedure of selectivly reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed.
p216
What is Behavior modification?
The application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behavior.
Continous vs Partial reinforcement.
Relationship to extinction.
Contious is refinforcing EVERY occurence of the behavior. While parital is only sometimes. Partially enforced behaviors tend to be more resistent to extinction.
p218
What is extinction?
The gradual weakening or dissapearing of a conditoned behavior.
What is latent learning?
Learning that occurs in the abscense of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available.
What is learned helplessness?
A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior.
p224
What is observationial learning?
Learning that occurs throught observing the actions of others.
What are the four factors necessary for observational learning to occur?
attention, memory, motor skills, and motivation.