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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of them by their society or culture.
Three stages of prenatal development
the germinal, the embryotic, and the fetal.
The germinal stage
begins at conception. The fertalized egg is known as a zygote and the zygote begins to divide. Stage ends with the implantation to the wall of the uterus.
The embryotic stage
begins about 2 weeks after conception and lasts until 8 weeks after conception. This is the point where the baby will either by male or female.
The fetal stage
From 8 weeks to birth.
Harmful influences on growing embryo or fetus.
German measles, x-rays or other radiation, toxic chemicals, STDs, cigarette smoking, alcohol, other drugs.
Contact comfort
in primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; it is the basis of an infant's first attachment.
separation anxiety
the distress that most children develop, at about 6 to 8 months, when their primary caregiver temporarily leave them with others.
Strange Situation
a test to determine the nature of the attachment between mothers and babies, devised by Mary Ainsworth.
secure attachment
the babies cry or protest if the mother leaves the room; they welcome her back and then they play happily again; they are clearly more attached to the mother than to the stranger.
avoidant insecure attachment
the child may be avoidant, not caring if the mother leaves the room, making little effort to seek contact with her on her return, and treating the stranger about the same as the mother.
anxious or ambivalent insecure attachment
resisting contact with the mother at reunion but protesting loudly if she leaves.
telegraphic speech
a child's first word combinations, which omit (as a telegram did) unnecessary words.
language acquisition device
according to many psycholinguists, an innate metal module that allows children to develop language if they are exposed to an adequate sampling of conversation.
In Paiget's theory, the process of absorbing new information into existing cognitive schemas.
cognitive schema
an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular category or concept.
in piaget's theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive schemas in response to experience and new information.
object permanence
the understanding, which develops throughout the first year, that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see it or tough it.
egocentric thinking
seeing the world from only your point of veiw; the inability to take another person's perspective.
the understanding that the physical properties of objects--such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass-- can remain the same even when their form or apearance changes.
power assertion
a method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child's misbehavior.
a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child's own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior.
gender identity
the fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independant of whether the person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender.
gender typing
the process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture.
gender schema
a cognative schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectation about what it means to be male and female.
the age at which a person becomes capable of sexual reproduction.
the onset of menstration.
the cessation of menstration and of the production of ova; it is usually a gradual process lasting up to several years.