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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two most serious diseases health care workers are at risk for contracting?
AIDS and hepatitis B.
The overuse injury that is associated with too much computer use is…
Carpal tunnel syndrome
State the two major health problems associated with night shift work.
Digestive disorder and sleep disturbance
The most consistently found benefit of flextime is…
Increase in employee attendance (reduction in absence and lateness).
List the five steps in the job stress process.
Objective stressor, perception of the stressor, appraisal of the stressor, short-term strain, long-term strain.
Define the two forms of workload.
Qualitative workload is having work that is difficult for a person to do; quantitative workload is having a lot of work to do.
List two negative effects of machine paced work
Increased anxiety, dissatisfaction, health symptoms, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol.
According to the demand/control model, under what conditions will increased job demands (job stressors) not result in increased strains?
When the employee has a high level of control
Which type of occupation is the most dangerous in terms of accidents?
State the three dimensions of burnout and a result of each
Emotional exhaustion results in absence and fatigue; depersonalization results in a callous treatment of others and hostility toward others; reduced personal accomplishment results in low motivation and poor job performance
List the three distinguishing characteristics of a work team
Actions of members are interdependent and coordinated; Each member has a specified role; There is a common task goal
Define the two types of roles
A formal role is the function of a specific person specified by the organization; an informal role is the function of a person to naturally evolves from the social interaction among people
What happens when a person violates a production norm?
He or she receives pressure from the group to conform, beginning with a polite reminder and ending with being rejected (and sometimes assaulted)
An increase in task performance due to the presence of other people is called?
Social facilitation.
What is social loafing?
When people in groups reduce their individual efforts.
What form of brainstorming seems to be effective as compared to nominal groups?
Electronic (computer) brainstorming
List the four factors that can lead to groupthink.
Group cohesiveness (some researchers say is unnecessary), isolation of the group, pressure for conformity, and a strong leader
What are the advantages of autonomous work groups?
Greater efficiency due to a reduction in number of supervisors, higher job satisfaction. Results with job performance have varied across studies, and at the present time seems to be no different from other approaches.
. _________ refers to a variety of interventions designed to enhance group functioning by putting members through a series of exercises with a trainer.
Team building
Define group polarization.
The tendency for a group to reach a decision that is more extreme than the mean of members initially.
List the French and Raven five bases of power.
Expert, referent, legitimate, reward, coercive.
List the three Yukl sources of political power.
Co-opt the opposition, form coalitions, gain control of decision processes.
What are the four requirements for a pattern of behavior to be considered sexual harassment?
Behavior is unwanted, adversely affects a person's employment, interferes with a person's job performance, and creates a hostile and intimidating work environment. (Note that not all four must be present).
What trait has been consistently associated with leader performance?
Cognitive ability (intelligence). (Other traits have been associated with leader emergence).
State the two leadership style dimensions from the Ohio State Leadership Studies.
Consideration and initiating structure.
The Least Preferred Coworker Scale assesses a characteristic of…
Path-goal theory is based on which motivation theory?
Expectancy theory.
The distinguishing characteristic of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is…
its focus on the leader--follower dyad or pair and recognition that supervisors don't treat each subordinate the same.
Approximately what percentage of managers and supervisors in the U.S. were women in 1999?
What is the glass ceiling?
The phenomenon that women and minorities can rise only to middle levels of organizations and then they experience impediments to further advancement
What is organizational development?
The application of behavioral science principles and procedures to enhance the functioning of organizations.
The person who facilitates organizational change and development is a…
Change agent.
List the five steps of a management by objectives (MBO) program.
Top officials set organization goals, managers are trained to set goals, supervisors hold goal-setting meetings with subordinates, employees work on goals, goal progress is evaluated.
The technique that begins with a job satisfaction (or attitude) survey is…
Survey feedback
Which method of OD has lost popularity because of ineffectiveness?
T-group (or training group).
List the four characteristics of a bureaucracy.
Division of labor, delegation of authority, span of control, line vs. staff.
The theory of organizations that suggests management attitudes determine subordinates behave is…
Theory X/Theory Y.
What is the basic idea of open system theory?
This theory suggests that organizations are open systems with 10 characteristics that are shared by animals and plants.
Define joint optimization and note from which theory it comes.
This concept from sociotechnical systems theory suggests that we must design the social and technical sides of organizations in combination so they are as compatible as possible
If I allow my subordinates to solve their own work problems, I have incorporated which principle?
Unit control of variances.