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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
characteristics of qualitative
based in contextualism
intensive contact with a setting and research participants
identification of assumptions and biases
data are words
thick description/insider knowlege
strategies to strenghten qualitative research
reflexivity
triangulation
refexivity
helps biases come out and letting yourself be exposed
triangulation
using multiple methods of data collection to understand phenomeon
multiple researchers, multiple methods
advantages of qualitative
exploration of topics rarely researched
indepth knowlege
attend to unheard voices
insider perspective
leads to theory development
limitations of qualitative
small samples
limited generalizability
time consuming
requires a lot of resources
METHODS:
qualitative interviewing
participants describe their experiences in their own words
open ended
multiple interview approaches
benefits:flexible, more structured if needed, share stories
challanges: time consuming, generalibility.
focus group
an interview with a group of people with something in common
participatns respond to questions or discussion topics
6-12 ppl
discussion guided by moderator
have ppl that dont know eachother
benefits: saves time, $$
challanges:vary in time, limits amount of info you can collect, ppl reluctant
organizational/communities case study
in depth study of one event, setting or individual
can be multiple levels of analysis
methods can include observations, interviews or review of document
benefits: deep understanding, variety of methods, unique situaitons
challanges: very little generalizability
characteristics of quantitative
based in positivism
relationship with variables
standardized measurement approaches
cause and effect
hypothesis setting
data are numbers
generaliziblity
predictable statement that can be true to multiple settings/context/communities
advantages of quantitaitve
ability to compare findings across studies
control for extraneous variables
large sample sizes
data is easily managed
studies are easily replicated
attention to relaiblility and validity
limitations of quantitaive
can not explore unique experiences of participants
based on previous knowledge
may lack sensitivity
time consuming and difficult
METHODS:
Experimental social innovation and dissemination (ESID)
create an innovation
evaluation of an innovation
dissemination of findings
closely related to laboratory studies
process of ESID
collaboration
definition
fact finding
research design
innovation
outcome assesment
dissemination of finding
Randomized Field Experiments: ESID approach 1
participants are randomly assigned
experimental and control group
outcomes are measured before and after innovation
group1: premeasurement-->innovation-->postmeasurement
group2: premeasurement-->control setting-->post measurement
advantages
large understanding of what expectations and effects are
clearer interpretation of what experiment/innovation accomplished
helps you measure things
disadvantages
not ethical to administer control over people
time consuming and expensive
intrusive to people
Nonequivalent comparison group design ESID approach 2
random assignment is not possible
comparison groups shoul dbe similar

community1: pre measurement-->innovation-->post measurement
community2: premeasurement-->time pass-->post measurement
advantages
flexibility
study things in naturally occuring environment
less intrusive
disadvantages
less control
differences in controls
Interrupted Time Series design: ESID approach 3
used when random assign not possible
often used in single case experiments
repeated measurement over time

individual: premeasurement-->innovation-->post measurement
advantages
flexible
longitudinal perspective
disadvantages
seasonal variations
safeguarding against unethical research
informed voluntary consent (numemberg code)
respect for persons (belmont report)
benefience (do no harm)
justice
instituitional review board
types of program evaluation
prior to program: needs/assets assesment
during program:
process evaluation
after program:
outcome/impact evaluation
outcome/impact evaluation
outcome: assesment of the short term program effects

impact: assessment of the long term program effects
pluralism
no group represent the norm equality
emphasis on strenghts
key dimensions of diversity
culture: societal norms for behavior
race: physical attribute
ethnicity: social identity based on ones culture
gender: roles in which men and women aer supposed to fill
sexual orientation: attraction, emotions
social class: power, economic resources, barriers in society
ability/disability
age
localities: differences in communitites and similarities
religion/spiritualityu
individualism
self reliance- motivated, responsiblity to have needs met
competition- emphasis on individual achievement
collectivism
cooperation
group interests- emphasis on group achievement, more common to see equality, success of group members is shared
oppression
unjust inequalities which present one group of people with power, resources,and opportunities while withholding the same power, resources and opportunities from other groups of people
- hierachy in society: dominant group and opressed group
(BOTH groups have strength)
characteristics of oppression
dominant group
opporessed group
(can be members of BOTH groups)
oppressive mechan"isms"
racism
sexism
classism
hetersexism
ageism
ableism
how oppression is sustained
myths/stigma- people rationalize oppression
media-presents misleading images
institutionalized policies- mental healthcare has cap, physical healthcare is unlimited, police profiling
liberation
second order change
securing full human rights by remaking or organizing society by excluding the oppressor or oppressed
defining community
geographic location
personal characteristics
shared interests
types of communities
locality- based community, city blocks, small towns, relational community- definied by interpersonal relations with other people (isnt bound by geography)
social capital
connections among individuals
concepts and types of social capital
formal social capital
social connections that arise through involvement in community organizations
informal social capital
social connections that arise through friendships
2 ways to build social capital
bonding: developing stong social-emotional ties with other people, closest to sense of community

bridging: creating links with communities or groups that may be different
McMillian and Chavis
elements of sense of community
membership
influence
integrations and fullfillment of needs
shared emotional connections
membership
boundaries
common symbol
experience of emotional safety
personal investment
sense of belonging and identification
influence
reciprocal influence
members-->community
integration, fullfillment of needs
shared values
need fullfillment
resource exchange
shared emotional connections
strong member bond
what influences shared emotional connections

ex. crisis, unique experiences, positive interaction among members
Warren and Warren sense of community in neighborhood and localities
shared neighborhood identity
interactions among neighborhoods residents
links to larger communities
stress coping and social support
processes related to coping
risk factors (poverty, discrimination)
protective factors- give us resources for coping, resiliance, help adapt to stress
ecological framework for coping
coping is contextual
influential factors:
resource availablitiy
interpretation of stressors
cultural tradition
status in society
neighborhood context
stressors
circumstances where by there is a threat or acutal loss of resources or scarcity of resources
types of stressors
major life events
life transactions
daily hassels
chronic stressors
disasters
resources
factors that promote health and well being
material resources (money, housing)
social emotional (social power, status)
social cultural (ethnic group we identify with)
the coping process: Appraisal
how we decide what is stressful and whats not
primary appraisal
determining how stressful situation is (how intense)
secondary appraisal
what resources and coping options do i have to deal what are consequences of stressful event
repraisal
refrain way of thinking
the coping process: emotions
individuals approaches to coping
dimensions of coping responses
problem focused coping
identifying, interpreting, acting
(self help group)
emotion
strategies that deal with emotional reaction
meaning focused coping
finding meaning in stressful event
look for positives
prosocial coping
relationships with others
care for others
ex. call friends when stressed out
antisocial coping
acting impulsive and harmful
disreguard for other people
ex. stressful science course, act competitively with student to deal with difficult class
outcomes of coping
enhanced wellness
resilliance
thriving
social embedness
empowerment
resources for coping
social support
psychosocial competenticies
spiritual/religion
mutual health groups
characteristics of social support
social
emotional
cognitive
behavioral
promoting adaptive coping
types of social support
generalized
social intergration
emotional support

specific support
encouragement
informational
tangible
multidimensional
connected with individual in more than one way
unidimensional
person in network serves only one role
understanding social support networks
our relationships with others
density of networks
recopricity
psychosocial compentecies
characteristics that help us cope with stressors
personal (emotions)
social (understanding others)
mutual health groups
focal problem or concern
peer leadership
peer relationship
recopricity of helping