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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Medical model
Theory which proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
Etiology
The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
Prognosis
The forecast about the probable course of an illness
Biomedical therapy
Type of therapy involving drugs, ECT, and psychosurgery
Behavioral therapy
Type of therapy based on classical and operant conditioning
Insight therapy
Type of therapy that relies on discussion between therapist and client
Psychotherapy
The process used by mental health professionals to help individuals recognize, define, and overcome their psychological and interpersonal difficulties and improve their adjustment
Prevalence of psychological disorders
32% of American adults
More frequent in poorer people
Occur by age 24
Antisocial personality
Disorder that lacks conscience or remorse, typical of con-men and serial killers
Borderline personality
Disorder involving instability in mood and identity, impulsive, black-and-white way of thinking, and difficult to treat
Narcissistic personality
Disorder that thinks highly of themselves, success fantasies, unable to accept criticism, expect admiration
Histrionic personality
Disorder characterized by a drama queen, shallow, expect praise, display attention- getting behaviors
Personality disorders
Disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
Uncategorized schizophrenia
Catatonic schizophrenia
Disorder with repition of movements leading to immobility
Disorganized schizophrenia
Disorder with inappropriate emotions, disturbed speech, deteriorating adaptive behavior
Paranoid schizophrenia
Disorder involving thinking someone is out to get them, delusions of persecution, hallucinations, bizarre actions
Schizophrenia
A group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate actions and emotions
Dysthymic disorder
A lessened case of major depressive disorder
Bipolar disorder
Disorder alternating between mania and depression, restless, over-inflated self-esteem
Major depressive disorder
Disorder characterized by symptoms lasting 2+ weeks: differed routines in eating and sleeping, weight gain/loss, lessened interest in activities, difficulty making decisions, recurring thoughts of death/suicide
Mood disorder
Disorder characterized by emotional extremes that disrupt physical, social, and cognitive functioning
Dissociative identity disorder
Disorder where a person exhibits 2 or more distinct and separate personalities
Dissociative fugue
Disorder where a person loses their personal identity, usually due to extreme stress
Dissociative amnesia
Disorder involving not remembering an accident or event which caused extreme stress
Dissociative disorder
Disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Disorder characterized by the repetitive, ritualized behavior of uncontrollable thoughts
Panic disorder
An acute onset of severe, extreme anxiety
Phobia
Fear fucused on a specific object, activity, or association resulting from classical conditioning
Generalized anxiety disorder
Disorder characterized by jittering and worrying about the future with no apparent cause
Anxiety disorder
Disorder characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety
Axes of DSM-IV
1-clinical syndromes
2-personality disorders and mental retardation
3-gen. medical conditions
4-psychosocial and environmental problems
5-global assessment of functioning scale
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
Most widely used system for classifying disorders
Classifies based on 5 axes
Classification of psychological disorders
The process of trying to describe, predict, treat, and study a disorder
Biopsychosocial model
Theory saying that all behavior comes from an interaction between genes and the environment
Psychological disorder
A condition in which behavior is judged atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, unjustifiable, and personally distressing
Psychodynamic therapy
Type of therapy that emphasizes unconscious mind and early childhood
Transference
Occurs when clients take their feelings toward another person out on the therapist unconsciously
Resistance
Largely, unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
Free Association
When clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur with little censorship
Dream analysis
Interpretting the symbolic meaning of a client's dreams
Client-centered therapy
Type of therapy with an emphasis on self-understanding and personal growth
Characteristics of a good therapist
Genuineness
Openness
Unconditional positive regard
Cognitive therapy
Type of therapy that believes that an individual's thoughts and beliefs are the source of abnormal behavior
Albert Ellis's components of rational-emotive behavior therapy
Activating experience
Belief system
Consequence
Disposition
Effects
Beck's cognitive therapy
Looks for negative thinking in people's thoughts
Behavior therapy
Type of therapy that uses learning principles to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior
Systematic desensitization
Behavior therapy used to reduce phobic client's anxiety responses through counter-conditioning based on classical conditioning
Aversion conditioning
Behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response based on classical conditioning
Social skills therapy
Behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasize modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping based on operant conditioning
Biomedical therapy
Therapy that reduces or eliminates symptoms of psychological disorders by altering body functioning
Anti-anxiety drugs
Drugs which relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness
Includes benzodiazepine and other tranquilizers
Antidepressant drugs
Drugs which gradually elevate mood
Include trycyclics, MAO inhibitors, SSRI's, and lithium
Trycyclics and MAO inhibitors
Drugs which affect neurochemicals
SSRI's
Drugs which slow the re-uptake process at serotonin synapses
Anti-psychotic drugs
Drugs used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions.
Includes narcoleptics, and atypical anti-psychotic drugs
Narcoleptics
Drugs which decrease activity at dopamine synapses
Tardive Dyskinesia
Neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and ticlike movements of the mouth, tongue, face, hands, or feet caused by some anti-psychotic drugs
Electro-convulsive therapy
A biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
Effectiveness of psychotherapy
Is impacted by the relationship between the therapist and the client and may require combining therapies