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66 Cards in this Set

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Soma
the cell body,contains the nucleus and keeps the cell alive and functioning-- shares properties w/ all other cells ; nucleus DNA
Dendrites
root like parts of the cell that stretch out from cell body (soma). They grow to make synaptic connections w/ other neurons
Axon
wire like structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from cell body they conduct electrical signals down link ions (charged particles)
Myelin sheath
fatty covering around axon of some neurons that insulates, protects, and speeds up nuclear impulses
Axon terminal
vesicles: holds neurotransmitters, neurotransmitters go to receptors
Axon hillock
connects axon to cell body (soma) electrical firing know as an action potential usually occurs
Synapse
tiny gap between terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron
What are the different divisions of the nervous system?
Central and Peripheral
What response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system?
Fight or flight- prepares the body to react and expand energy in times of stress. Everything stops working to preserve energy needed to get away
Spinal cord
carries messages to and from the body to the brain then is responsible for very fast life saving reflective
Brain stem
is at the bottom of the brain, consists of the (medulla, pons, midbrain,) reticular formation, cerebellum. Responsible for basic vital life functions; breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure. reflexes, voluntary postural and sleeping
Thalamus
part of the limbic system, located in the center of the brain on top of brain stem responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming up the spinalcord and sending them to the appropriate areas
Basal ganglia
cell bodies, controls deliberate movements in CNS responsible for motor movements.–this is a misnomer because CNS cell bodies are called nucleus and cell bodies in PNS are called ganglion
Cerebellum
located back of brain stem controls movement of limb
Limbic system
responsible for drive related behaviors, found not entirely true b.c. 2 structures needed for drive/emotional related behaviors contains: thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Hypothalamus
located below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus regulates body temperature, sleeping and waking, sexual activity, thirst, hunger, and emotions
Corpus callosum
Hard body--Group of axons that connects the left and right hemisphere. All interactions that take place between the two hemispheres goes through the corpus callosum
Neuron
the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that sends and receives messages within the system. It includes- dendrites, soma, axon
neurotransmitters
chemical found in synaptic vesicles, that when released has an effect on the next cell
What are the different types of neurotransmitters?
Acetylcholine- an excitatory neurotransmitter, found at the synapse between neurons and muscle cells. It stimulates muscles to contract. Also invovled in memory. Lack of acetylcholine= paralysis. Too much = convulsions.
Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, helps calm anxiety is involved in sleep.
Serotonin- can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on its location in brain area. its associated w/ sleep, mood, appetite. Too little = depression
Dopamine- involved in control of movements and sensations of please. Too little = parkinsons
too much = schizophrenia
Endorphins- pain-controlling chemicals naturally produced by body.
Central Nervous System
housed in the skull and spine controls network for the entire body. Consists of brain and spinal cord. Contains 3 basic types of neurons (sensory, motor, Interneurons)
Peripheral Nervous System
(nerves on the edge) allows the brain and spinal cord to communicate with sensory organs (ears, eyes, skin, mouth) and control muscles & glands.
PNS divided into 2 major systems: Somatic and Autonomic
Somatic Nervous System
division of Peripheral NS. Made up of the nerves that carry info from senses to the CNS and from the CNS to voluntary muscles of body. (contains sensory neurons- carry messages from sensory organs to CNS and motor neurons- carry messages from CNS to voluntary muscles)
Brain Stem
at the botton of brain consits of 4 main areas: Medulla, Pons, Tetricular formation, Cerebellum
Limbic System
located under the cortex of brain, above brain stem. involved in learning, emotions, motivation. composed of Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala.
Transduction
in the sensory system contains receptors-which are neurons that are devoted to picking up signals from the environment. Transductions pick up environmental energy and translate or convert it to normal means to ther nervous system
spatial neglect
A condition produced by damage to the association area of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field
Left side of brain
language, speech, handwriting, calculation, sense of time and rhythm
Right side of brain
perception, visualization, spatial perception, recognition of patters, faces, emotions, melodies, and expression of emotion
Cornea
clear covering of eye
aqueous humor
chamber with water like liquid flowing through it, behind cornea
iris
color part of eye- it's a muscles. Tighten( far awa) and bends (up close)
Vitreous Humor
chamber, blood like fluid, helps eye keep its shape
Retina
nervous system, light sensitive area at back of eye contains Rods and Cones
What 2 types of receptors are found in retina?
rods and cones
rods
visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsbile for non-color sensitivity to low levels of light
cones
visual sensory receptors found at he back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vison
What other types of neurons exist on the retina
ganglion cells and bipolar cells
trichromatic theory
proposes that there are 3 types of cones red, blue and green. the specific cone color receives light and sends/fires the message to the brain. The cone combination and the rate of sending determine the colors that the brain perceives
opponent-process theory
states there are 4 colors, red, green, blue & yellow. Cones are paired (red, green) (blue, yellow) (white,black). when one cone in a pair is stimulated the other cone can't work. this theory explains the occurence of an afterimage
Pinna
outer ear visible part that funnels sound waves
eardrum
thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening to the middle ear. when sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrates and causes bone in the middle ear to vibrate
three tiny bones in the middle of ear that make up the auditory ossicles
hammer, anvil, stirrup
cochlea
snail shaped structure translates sounds into nerve impulses
organ of Corti
a structure composed of hair-like cells that sends signals to the structure composed of hair-like cells that send signals to the auditory cortex of the brain by means of the auditory nerve
three somesthetic sense systems
skin sense (touch, pressure, temperature, and pain) kinestetic sense (deals with location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other) Vestibular sense ( deals with movement and body position)
proprioceptors
located in the skin are part of the body's kinesthetic sense of its position in space
otolith organs
contains tiny crystals and , when you move your head, the crystals cause the fluid to vibrate. The vibrations send a message to the brain that you are moving.
Semicircular canals
thin tubes in the inner ear that are filled with fluid. The fluid moves and presses on hair-like receptors whenever the head rotates, these hairs translate movement to nerve messages and tells the body how to stay balanced
Just noticeable difference (or the difference threshold)
The smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50% of the time. calculates the smallest detectable change in the stimulus
Absolute threshold
the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50% of the time it is present
Subliminal stimuli
stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness
Encoding
the set of mental operations that people perfom on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brians storage system (short term--> long term)
models proposed to explain how memory works
information-processing model.
Levels-of-processing model.
parallel-distributed processing model.
Sensory memory
the very first stage of memory, the point at which info enters the nervous system through the sensory system
selective attention
the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
Kinds of Sensory Memory
Iconic memory - lasts for .25 sec and is visual representation of info in neural form.
Echoic memory- an auditory representation of information and last for up to 4 sec
2 types of Long-Term Memory are..?
Procedural memory (implicit memory) - skill, habits, conditioned response. and Declarative memory (explicit memory)- general knowledge general facts and personal experiences. Declarative has 2 parts (semantic & episodic memory)
retrieval cue
a stimulus for remembering (play house made her remember 8th bday)
encoding specificity
tendency for memory of information to be improved if related to other information (cotton candy--first amusement park)
serial position
tendency to able to remember the begin and end but not so much the middle of the body of information
primacy effect
remember info from beginning
recency effect
remembering the end of something
Flashbulb Memories
type of automatic encoding that occurs becuase an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it
automatically encoded
tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding
false positive
error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory