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279 Cards in this Set

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Reflexes in infants
grasping, rooting,swiming, smiling, babinksi, moro
what is rooting?
turning head when cheek is stroken
whaen does grasping become goal oriented?
5 months
when does similing become a response to external stimulation
2 months
what is the babinski reflex?
stroke bottom of foot, spread toes out
What is the moro reflex
throw into air, and goes spread eagle
What are some reflexes in adults?
salivation, withdrawl from pain, pupil action, startle, blink, knee flex, sneezing
Define learning
a relatively permanent change in performance potential that arises from experience
What is behavorism
a move from intrapsychic to science that focuses on astimulus ina n environemnt that leads to some response
Who is Ivan pavlov
russian psychologist that studied classical condition by studing how the dog prepares itself for food
In the Pavlov experiment, what is the unconditioned stimulus
food
In the Pavlov experiment, what is the uncodintioned response?
salivation
In the Pavlov experiment, what is the condition stimulus
tone/bell
In the Pavlov experiment, what is the conditioned response
salivated to the bell
In the Pavlov experiment, what is extinction
getting rid of the conditioned response if you stop pairing the conditioned stimulus with the uncondition stimulus
In classical conditioning, what is generalization
responding to a similar (but not exactly the same) conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
In classical conditioning, what is discrimination
an organism conditioned to respond only to a specific/discreet stimulus
In classical conditioning, what is higher oder conditioning
when a chain of stimuli lead to the conditioned response
In classical conditioning, what is spontaneous recovery?
after extinction, the response is relearned very quickly
What is habituation
a decline in the tendency to respond to stimuli that have become familiar
what is classical conditioning?
a form of learning in which a previously neutral simulus (CS) is paired with an uncondition stimulus (UCS), regardless of what the animal does
what is counter conditioning?
something used to stop a response instead of starting one
What did Watson do>
he worked on conditioned emotinal reactions
What did Wolpe do?
he was watson's student that worked with systematic desensitation
What is the basic principle between systematic desensitization?
you can't feel 2 emotions at 1 time
What are the steps of systematic desensitization?
1. relaxation training
2. construct anxiety hiearchy
2. desensitization-relax then have them do the scary thing
What is instrumental (operant) conditioning
a reinforcer (food) is given only if the animal performs the instrumental response (pushing a lever)
learning curve
an index of learning (number of drops of saliva) is plotted against trials or seasons
reconditioning
presentation of further reinforced conditioning trials after a conditioned response has been extinguished
second order conditioning
sitmulus is made meaninful through an inital step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a bassis for learning about some new stimulus...(ie. firzt bell = food, then light=bell=food)
thorndikes law of effect
if a response is followed by a reward, that response will be strengthened. If a response is followed by a punishment/no reward, response will be weakened
shaping
an instrumental learning procedure in which an animal learns a difficult response through rewarding closer and closer versions of the desired response
intrinsic motivation
motivation that seems inherent in an activity itself (do i for its own sake or b/c its fun)
schedules of reinforcement
pattern on ocassions on which responses are to be inforved (time/interval)
fixed ratio scheduled
you have to respond a certain number of times to get rewarded
fixed interval schedule
rewards earned only after a centrain time period has elapsed
varialble-ratio scehdule
a pattern of rewards with the ratio varying from reward to reward. All around some average, but sometimes it is less and sometimes more
punishment
a way to supress a response by following it w/ some averse event
latent learning
learning that occurs w/ out manifestation of performance
learned helplessness.
When stuck in/unable to escape situations of aversion, the person fails to learn to escape subsequent situations in which escape is possible
presynaptic facillitation
learning resuts in the increased readiness of presynaptic neurons to fire
-study of Aplysia, underlies many kids of learning
one-trial learning
establisment of a conditioned response after only 1 pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus
long term potentiation
cellular plasticity in which a postsynaptic neuron becomes more sensitiv to the signal recieved by from the presynaptic neuron.
Caused by rapid/sustained firing of presynaptic neuron
Potentiation spreads to others
critical period
period when organism is particularly sensitive to certain environmental influences, while outside of this period the influences have little effect
concrete operational
6-11
able to abstract to attibutes of reality (nimber and substances) but only to concrete events (not the abstract)
sensitive period
same as critical period
sensorimotor period
0-2
sensations and motor impulse
very little internalized representations
preoperational
2-6
represent actions/objects internally but can't systematically maipulate/relate them
-no quantinty or ability to take other points of view
formal operational
11-on
abstract mntal operations (hypothetics) can be taken on
object permanence? age?
objects remains constant over time and exists when out of space
-8 months old or more
schemas
general cognitive strucute in which information is organized/a mental pattern
accomodation
the way the child changes his chemas as he continues to interact w/ the environment
assimilation
the way the environment is interpreted interms of the shemas the child has at the time
egocentrism? what age/stage?
properational children
inability to see others points of view
metacognition
knowledge about knowledge (ie knowing that we don't/do remember something)
theory of mind
interrelated concepts used to try to make sens of our own mental process and those of others (ie variation in beliefs/desires from one person to anoter)
zone of proximal development
range of accomplishments that are beyond what the child could do on his/her own, but are possible if given help or guidance
overreggulation
mistakes where a person treats irregular cases as though they follow the rules (goed and foots)
phonemes
smallest unit of sound, that in english, usually ocrresponds to a letter of the alphabet
critical period hypothesis
certain skills MUST be gained at a particualar age or development stage
morphemes
smallest unit of meaning in languge
motherese
singsong speech used towards infants
syntax
rules used to combine words/letters meaninfully
definitional tehory
the mental representation of the meaning of something is based on simplier/smaller concepts
prototype theory
concepts are formed baed on the average/typical, no single attirbutes
frequencey distribution
an arrangement in which scores are tabulated by how often they occur
mean
measure of central tendancy, arithmetic average
median
measure of central tendancy, the point that dividides the distribution into 2 equal halves
normal (bell) curve
symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the probablility of obtaining various combinations of chance events. The normal frequency distribution of many attributes of humans and animals
correlation
tendency of 2 vaariables to vary together
correlation coefficient
r- number that expresses teh size and direction of a porrelatiion from-1 to 1, w/ 0 being no correlation at all
scatter plot
graph showing the relation ship between to interval or ratio scale cariables, w/ each axis representing one varibale
used to graph correlation data
reliability
the degreee of consistency w/ wich a test measures a trait/attribute.
validity
the extent to which a test mearures what it is supposed to measure
norms
in intelligence testing the scores taken from a large sample of the population against which an individual's test scores are evaluated
fluid intelligence
the ability to deal w/ essentially new problems
-declines w/ age
crystallized intelligence
the repertoire of info, cognitive stkills and strategies acquired by the application of fluid intelligence to various fields
-increases w/ age
multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner
8 essential, independent metnal capabilities
liguistic, logical-mathematical, visospatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intra personal,and naturalistic
phenotype
the overall appeareance and behavior of an organism, regardless of its genes
genotype
the genetic blueprint of an organism wich may or may not be overtly expressed by its phenotype
stereotype threat
a hypothesized mechanim thru which a persons performance on a test is influenced by her perception that the test results may confirm stereotypes about her
analogical representation
a representation that shares some of the physical characteristics of an object (i.e. a picture of a mouse)
symbolic representation
a type of mental representation that doesn't ocrrespond to the physical characteristics that it represents (i.e. the word mouse)
mental maps
a mental representation of the spatial layout of a scene
concepts
a class/category that subsumes a number of individual instances. concepts are related thru propositions relating a subject (chicken) to a predicate (lay eggs)
associative links
connections in memory that tie one memory or concept to another
automaticity
the state that is achieved when an action has gone through the porcess of automatization
parallel distributed processing
models of cognitive processing in which the relevant symbolic representations don't correspond to any 1 unt of the network the state of the network as a whole
propositions
assertions made that relate a subject and a predicate
semantic priming
the enhanced performance on verbal tasks that occurs wen items being considered have similar meanings
conditional statements
if..then statements, where the if states the condition where the then is garunteed to be true
deductive reasoning
trying to determine wheter some statement flollows logically from certain premises, like analyzing syllogisms
inductive reasoning
obsevation of a number of partivular instaces and trying to determine a genearl rule that covers them al
stroop effect
a marked decreases in the speed of naming the collors in which various color names are printed w/ the colors and names different (example of automatization)
syllogisms
a logic problem containing 2 premises and a conclusion that may or may not follow from them
blindsight
the ability of a person w/ a lesion in the visual cortex to reach toward/guess at location of obects in a part of the visual field that corresponds to the lesion, although they can see nothing in that part of their visual field
confirmation bias
the tendency to seek evidence to support one's hypothesis
framing
a heuristic that affects the subjevtive desirability of an event by changing the stard of reference for judging the desirability (comparing to the worst posible result as opposed to the best possible result)
heuristics
explains how people make decisions. biases.
preservation
the tendecy to repeat the same response inappropriately, typically accompanying the defects in strategy formation observed w/ prefrontal lesions
mental set
the predisposition to percieve, remember, or think of one thing rather than another
imprinting
a learned attatchemt formed in a particualr period in lfe that is dificult to reverse
observational learning
a mechanism of socialization whereby a child obeserves another person who serves as a model and then proceeds to imitate what the model does
empathy
a direct emotional response to another person's emotions
socialization
the process by which the child acquires the patterns of behavior charactersitics of its society
gender roles
the set of external behvior patterns a given culture deems appropriate for each sex
gender identity
the inner sense of being male or female
gender constancy
the recognition that being male or female is to all intents and purposes irrevocable
sexual orientation
a person's predisposition to hose memebers of the same or opposite sex a romantic and sexual partners
What is thorndike's puzzle box?
an animal has to perform some physical action (pull a lever) to get out of a cage and be rewarded
What is thorndikes learning curve
A gradual decline in the time it takes to do the right thing. Not smooth (many cluctuations). Is smooth when averaging the results of many individuals
What is the skinner box?
box where intrusmental response could be performed repeatedly and rapidly, recieving some stimuli/reinforcement. MEasures the response rate
Who studied various methods of reinforcement?
Skinner
Who believed in radical behaviorism?
Skinner
What is the goal of a reinforcer?
to increase a behavior
What is a primary reinforce?
its value is biologically determined
What is a secondary reinforcer?
its value is associated w/ a primary reinforcer
What is negative reinforcemt?
When you do something, a negative stimuli stops occuring, so you do that thing more often
What is positive punishment?
When you do something, then you recieve a punishment, you stop doing that thing
What is a negative punsihment?
When you do something GOOD, get punished, and stop doing that GOOD thing
What are the Pros of positive punsihment?
prevents injury, immediate, easy, generally reduces behvaoir, conveys info about innappropriate behavior
What are the cons of positive punishment?
makes punisher feared, temporary, no positive alternative, makes aggression seem appropriate, create emotional disturbance
successive approximations?
the process of shaping a response by rewarding closer and closer versions of the desired response
What is the response in classical conditioning? In intrumental conditioning?
elicted (involuntary); emited(voluntary)
what is learned in classical conditioning
the relationship between 1 stimulus and another
What is learned in instrumental conditioning?
the association between behavior and consequence
insight: define, who coined the term?
Wolfgang Kholer-Definition I don't know!
What did Tolman introduce?
cognitive maps and latent learning
What is observational learning? Who studied this?
learning from a model, Albert Bandura
What are 3 effects of observing violence?
-decreased concern about victim's suffering
-reduced sensitivity to the sight of violence
-aggressive models increase tendency to act agressively
What is nature vs. nuture
born w/ everything or influenced by the environment
what is a ciritical period?
something has to happen w/ in a critical time period, or it won't happen
What is a sensitive period?
something can happen in a broad window or beyond, and skill can still be developed
what is continuity vs. discontinuity?
is development gradual or are there some rapid periods of transformation?
Stability vs. change?
will people always be the same or are they capable of change?
What is corssenctional reserch?
Benefits/ cons
look at people of different ages at the same time
Benefits: efficient
Cons:Confounds-cohort effect
What is the cohort effect?
different generations have different developmental paths
What is longitudinal research? Pros/cons
Follow the same group of people through out
Benefits: isolate developmental changes from group differences
Cons: historical effects and practice effect
What is the historical effects
differences in environments may cause changes
what is the practive effect?
one gets better at a test because they have more practice
When is prenatal development most vulnerable?
weeks 3-8
What are the sensory capabilities at birth
no systematic control of movements, no goal directed movements
What does motod development grow in tandem with?
cognitive development
What is cephalocaudal principle
moves from head to feet
what is the proximal distal principal
moves from midline to extremeties
motor development occurs through (which stages/process)?
gradual differentation
What are the growth patterns in the 1st 2 decades?
neural growth-raid development
physical growth-periods of development
how do we know infants are capable of learning from birth?
-can be classically condition
-can be reinforced using opron principle
-they hae a good meory
What is the nativist theory about human knowlede?
born w/ everything you know
What is the empiricist theory about human knowledge
born w/ nothing-experiences make us
Who is an interactionis? What do they believe?
Piaget; that you take knowledge and expand it by interacting w/ the environment
What is the piaget stage theory of congitive development (pathway)
senorimotor to pre-operational to concrete operation to formal operational
what is the sensorimotor period
0-2 uses senes/motor development to learn about the object. Development object permanence, object constacny, and schemas. Learn throuh assimilation and accomodation
assimilation
take new experiences and fold them into a chema
accomodation
seperate schemas into different groups
What is object constancy?
an object is still an object even when you look at it from a different angle
What is the pre-operational period
(2-6) start mental representations (pretendings) and egocentrism
What is the concrete operational stage?
7-12
-ordering and relational terms
-reversability (conservation of #, length, volume, and mass)
How has the piaget theory changed?
same order across cultures
-stagies occur earlier
-inconsistency w/ in stages (not purely linear)
-information processing theory
what is the information processing theory?
not discreet stages: more gradual/continuous- at the end you know how to think about thinking
which type of reasoning is more suspectible to error?
inductive (bottom up)
What are some of the biases in inductive reasoning?
mental set, distraction, framing, represenative, conformation
In inductive reasoning bias, what is mental set?
clues to make you give a certain answer
In inductive reasoning bias, what is distraction?
unnecesarry information
In inductive reasoning bias, what is framing?
setting people up to think a certain way by using positive or negative descriptions (ie in terms of success or failure)
In inductive reasoning bias, what is represenative bias
the over use of prototypical characteristics and under-use of base-rate/statistical information
In inductive reasoning bias, what is availability biasis?
bias in what you can easily call to mind
In inductive reasoning bias, what is conformation bias?
tend to seek out info that confirms what we know about people
What happens to IQ scores as you get older?
steady decrease from age 25 and on
What happens to fluid intelligence as we get older
steady decrease from age 25 and on
What happens to crystall intelligence as we get older?
steady increase from age 25 and on
What are some general trends in cognitive development?
-greater interindividual variability
-gain control over thinking
-more thorough information processing
-comprehend increasingly complex ideas
-cognitive flexibility
How can you forestall cognitive decline?
-more formal education
-spouse that's smarter than you
-cognitively stimulating activities/job
What is the cognitive developmental perspective of moral development?
???
What is the fruedian perspective of moral development?
???
What is the social learning perspective of moral development?
???
What did Lawrence Kohlberg do w/ Heins?
???
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
precoventional, convetnional, and postconventional
Preconventional moral development?
(7-10)
-obedience
-self-interest
Conventional moral development
(10-16+)
-good boy/girl
-autorhity
Post convetional moral development?
(16+)
-human rights
-social welfare
Descripe the timeline of language
brain developed (50,000 ya)
paintings on walls (35,00 ya)
writing appeared (12,00 ya)
language is relatively new and continues to evlve
What are the key factors of leanguage?
symbolic, structural, and generative
What is sthe surface structure of langauge?
what it looks like-syntax rules used to combine words/letters in a meaningful way
what is the deep structure of langauge?
the fact that the symbols make an idea-semantics: the meaning behid the way we put things to gether to make them fluid
Which is more complex syntax or semantics
semantics
describe the elements of language from simpliest to most complex?
phomenes to morphenese to words to phrases to discorse
What is a precursor to language acquisiton?
understanding that abstract things can represent other things
What are the biological foundations of langauge acquisition?
brain area, the sensitive period from birth through pubert, universal phnemes
What does the broca's area of language represent?
production of language
What does the wernicke's area of language do?
comprehension of language
What is Noam Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device
-born w/ knowledge about language and how it functions
-primed to use language w/ universal phomenes
-learn about 5 new words a day when approximately 5/6 yo
How is langauge a social learning process?
motherese, operant conditioning (rewarded for using language correctly), modeling
When do babies begin to narrow phomenes and imitate?
7-11 months
When do babies begin to use morphenes and speak 1 word sentences?
12-18 months
When do people start to develop telgraphic speech and sloppy sentences?
18-24 months
What is the very imprtant age w/ rapid vocab gain and basic syntax?
ages 2-4
what are scripts?
-know conventions about how certain conversations should go
-turn taking
What are pragmatics?
vocalizations, nonverbals, proxemics, gestures
What are vocalizations?
using certain tones to put across a certain message
Who studied laughter as language?
Robert Provine
How do we know laughter is a social phenomena?
it occurs 30x more w/ others than alone
Women and laughter?
laugh more and w/ more people
What did Galton use to determine the "efficiency of the nervous system"?
reaction time, grip stength, and sensory acuity
what is a eugenics movement?
mate only w/ inteligent people, believed in sumplusary sterilization
What did Binet study?
the mental age w/ a set of test that kids at a certain age should be able to do
What is William Stern's Intelligence quotient?
mental age/chronological age x100
What is the IQ now?
a performance compared to other people similar to them
How did Goddar Efffect the Immigration Restriction Act?
He was a hereditarian who translated Binet's test and let people who "looked smart" in
What is the psychometric approach to intelligent?
assume that many little skills represent the big the thing-intelligence
Spearman's g
psychometric approach
-many tests and then correlated them w/ each other to find g = general ablilit/intelligence
What is a factor analysis?
separate test them combinind them statistically to find g
What is the systems models approach to intelligence?
nothing bigger, discrete skills that operate independently
# of Louis Thrustone intelligences
7 of them
What intelligences does Raymond Cattel believe in?
Crystallized and fluid intelligence
# of gardner intelligences?
8, that are not all mental
What is Robert Sternberg's triarchich teheory?
humans are tested on analytical, practical and creative demands w/ metacomponents (plan), knowledge/acquisition components, and performance components
What is the difference between an achievement and an aptitude test?
???
What does it mean to test similarities?
to test abstract thinking
What does it mean to test digit span?
to test attention and memory
What is construct validity?
does it measure what we think it measures
what is criterion validity?
does it measure future performance
What is the range of IQs for the retarted?
0-70
What is the range of gifted people in terms of IQ?
110-130
Name some facts about gifted people?
-mental competence often in 1 area
-educational challenges
-rates of social/pyschological problems
-Terrman's study
What is terman's study?
???
What pair of people have most similar IQs?
identical twins, especially when reared together
Which pairs come after identical twins in IQ similarities?
fraternal twins and parent child relationships
What is the reaction range?
???
What are men the best at w/ intelligence?
visual/spatial
-targeted motor skills
-math reasoning
What are women the best at w/ intelligence?
-verbal fluency
-math calculations
-fine motor skills
-perceptual speed
What are John Ogbu's minority classes?
autonomus minorities:amish
immigrant minorities:Japanese apericans
involuntary minorities:Harijans/untouchables
Basics about social development
desire to establish relationship based on biological predispositions
-depends on cognitive development
-influenced by society/culture
How much is extraversion dependent of heredity?
53%
What is Brumfenbrenners social ecology?
different layers that impact the child:
cultural context to social context to interrelating among immediate environments to immediate envrionemnts to the child
Social development is continuous, when is its range big and when is it small?
big during childhood and adolescence, smaller during infancy and adulthood
What did Harry Harlow do to show the importance of attachment
He showed contact comfort (like warm things) w/ the terry cloth and wire reeses mokeys
What are the stages Bolby describe w/ attachement
2-3 mths: indiscriminate attatchment
6 mths: unique attachment to caregiver
9-12 monts: fear stranger
1-2 yrs: really fear strangers and love primary
3 yrs: stranger anxiety dissipates
What do Ethologist study? What dif Freud's daughter find?
animals, including humans
kids need methods of attracting a caregiver when the feel threatened and care giver needs to respond
What did Mary ainsworth do?
she studied the assesment of attatchments and the strange situation
What do Ethologist study? What dif Freud's daughter find?
animals, including humans
kids need methods of attracting a caregiver when the feel threatened and care giver needs to respond
secure atatchment?
mother resolves anxiety
insecure attatchemnt
kids couldn't be cosoled (avoidant or anxious/ambivalent)
avoidant insecure attatchemnt?
ignored mother when she returned
anxious/ambivalent insecure attatchment?
continued to be upset when mother returned
Describe the internal working model (adult types) of SECURE?
positive model of self capabilities and of others respondance
Describe the internal working model (adult types) of DISMISSIVE?
positive workking model of self but negative of others respondeance
Describe the internal working model (adult types) of PREOCCUPIED
Neegative model of self capabilities but positive modle of others respondance
Describe the internal working model (adult types) of FEARFUL
Negative models of self capablilites and negative models of others respondance
What are some inborn prosocial behaviors?
-natural giving behavior
-empathy (cry when others cry)
2 methods of learning right from wrong
social referencing (models): but its not enough b/c @ 2 begin testing their "power"
Internalizing what's right: learned through guilt arund age 3
empathy-based guit
realization of hurting others, want to be a good person
anxiety based guilt
realize they can get into trouble (not thinking about others)
Categories of discipinarly techinques
power assertion (spank), love withdrawl ( good for nothing), induction (you aren't the kind of person who does that thing)
Authoritave Parenting style?
Warm and Restrictive: clear rules, good communication
-high self-esteem, social
Authoritarian Parenting style
Hostile and Restrictive: cold and recenting
-low self-esteem, low achievement
Permissive Parenting Style?
Warm and Permissive: caring w/ little guidance
-immature, self-centered, impatient
Neglecting Parenting Style
Hostile and PEmisive: no affection or quidance
-disturbed realtionships, impuslive, aggresive
What is wrong w/ chronic spanking?
-doesn't facilitate internalize morality
-create ill-will
What are the purposes of play?
evolutionary
learningr rules/roles
How is play paradoxical
there is freedom but also rules/roles to be folowed
How does play change as we get older?
becomes organized and less free
What are the features of age-mixed play
-less competive
-younger learn
-older consolidate knowledge
-better than age-matched play
What are the features of boys' play?
-larger groups
-more active/competitive
-heiracry/dominance
What are the features of girl's play
-small groups
-more cooperation
-less interuption
-think about others
What 3 things make up genderal acquisition?
bilogical factors (different hormones/and behaviors)
interaction w/ parental relations
-psychodynamic freudian perspective (oedipus/electra complex)
What is gender schema?
???
When is gender identity developed?
age 4
when is gender contancy developed?
age 7
What happens during psychosocial development of adolecents?
separation from parents increased closeness of w/ peers
What happens to cliques as adolescenes ge older?
The crowd gets broken up and cliques become co-ed
What is identity solidification in adolesces?
begin to confirm beliefs, self, goals, ideas, and values
The onset of puberty is happening much ___ compared to the 1900s?
sooner
What regulates social behavior
-internal sitmuli
-external stimuli
-culture
-hormones
sexual attraction?
attraction toward, desire to have sex, desire to be in a loving relationship
what is sexual behavior?
mutual voluntary behvaior that involves genital contact and arousal
What is sexual identy?
personally chosen; due to social/historical labels that people have acquired about the meaning of their sexuality
What effects the development of sexual values?
-what kid of sexual person do you want to be
-standards differ across gender
What fraction of adolescents use contraceptives? What fraction of adolecent girls become pregnant?
1/3; 1/3