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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
REM sleep behavior disorder
when the mechanism that usually shuts down bodily movements during dreams does not function properly
a drug that supresses movements during dreams
stages of sleep
Stages 1-4 and REM cycle
Stage 1
a move from a waking state in which they are relaxed with their eyes closed. Rapid, low-amplitude brain waves. A state of transition between wakefulness and sleep. Images sometime appear, as if viewing photos
Stage 2
1/2 of total sleep time spent here. Slower, more regular waves. Becomes increasingly difficult to waken a person from sleep as stage 2 progresses.
Phase 3
Brain waves become even slower with higher peaks and lower valleys
Stage 4
Even slower and more regular. People are least responsive to outside stimulation. Early part of the night.
REM Sleep
Last part of sleep, 20% of sleeping time. Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming.
3 Theories for dreaming
Unconscious wish fulfillment theory, Dreams-For-Survival Theory, and Activation-Synthesis theory.
Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory
Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreams desire to be fulfilled.
Latent content of dreams
"disguised" meaning of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects
Manifest content of dreams
Overt story line of dreams. Emotions probably cause this.
Dreams-For-Survival Theory
Information that is critical for our daily survival. Dreams represent concerns about our daily lives.
Activation-Synthesis Theory
Random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories lodged in various portions of the brain. The brain takes these chaotic memories and weaves them into a logical story line.
difficulty in sleeping
Sleep apnea
a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping
Sudden infant death syndrome
a mysterious killer of seemingly normal infants who die while sleeping.
Night terrors
sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physicological arousal.
uncontrollable falling asleep.
Circadian Rhythms
internal clock. Occurs repeatedly on approx. 24-hr cycle.
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
controls the beat of circadian rhythms.
Seasonal affective disorder
severe depression in which feelings of despair and hopelessness increase during the winter.
Trouble Sleeping?
Choose regular bedtime, don't use bed as an all-purpose area, avoid drinks w/ caffeine after lunch, drink warm milk at bedtime, avoid sleeping pills, and try NOT to sleep.
a relatively permanent change in behaior brought about by experience
classical conditioning
a tyle of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
neutral stimulus
bell, before conditioning it doesn't naturally bring about the response in which we are interested
unconditioned stimulus
meat, a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned
unconditioned response
salivation, a response that is natural and needs no training. Always brought about by the presence of unconditioned stimuli
Conditioned stimulus
bell at the end, a once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response
salivation at the end, a response that after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus. after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus evokes the conditioned response
a basic pheneomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually diasppears.
spontaneous recovery
the reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning.
stimulus generalization
tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar but different from a conditioned stimulus; the more similar the two stimuli are, the more likely generalization is to occur
stimulus discrimination
the ability to differentiate beteween stimuli. If two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response, and another does not, we can say that stimulus discrimination has occured.
the process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
behavior modification
a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
cognitive-social learning theory
an apporach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. This focuses on the unseen mental process that occur during learning, rather than concentrating solely on external stimulu, responses, and reinforcements. It is assumed that people develop an expectation about receving an reinforcer when they behave a certain way.
latent learning
learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
observational learning
learning through observing the behavior or another person is called a model
4 steps to Observational learning
1.) paying attention and perceiving the most critical features of another person's behavior
2.) remembering the behavior
3.) reproducing the behavior
4.)being motivated to learn and carry out the behavior in the future
Analytical learning style
they do best when they carry out an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomonon or situation
Relational learning style
These people master material best through exposure to a full unit or phenmenon.
the process by which information initially is recorded in a form usuable to memory
the maintenance of material saved in the memory system
material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful
the process by which we encode, store, and retreive information.
Three systems of memory
sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
sensory memory
the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant
Short-term memory
memory that holds information for 15-25 seconds
Long-term memory
memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrienve
Iconic memory
sensory memory that reflects information from the visual system
echoic memory
sensory memory that stores auditory information coming from the ears
a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory (phone numbers)
the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
elabroate rehearsal
occurs when the information is considered and organized in some fashion. making it fit in a logical framework, linking it to another memory, turning it into an image, etc.
organizational strategies and formal techniques for organizing information in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered.
serial position effect
the ability to recall information in a list depending on where in the list an item appears
primary effect
items presented early in a list are remembered better
recency effect
items presented late in a list are remembered best
working memory
short term, a set of active temporary memory stores that rehearse information. 3 systems: visiual store, verbal store, episodic buffer
declarative memory
memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like. 2 subcategories: semantic memory & episodic memory
Semantic memory
memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to declare other facts (zip code, multiplication tables)
Episodic memory
memory for the biographical details of our individual lives (experiences we've had)
Procedural memory
memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball.
Associative models of memory
theory that memory consists of mental representations of interconnected information Thinking about a particular concept leads to recall of relaed concepts
a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (called a prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
explicit memory
intentional or conscious recollection of information
implicit memory
memories of which people are not consciously aware, bt which can affect subsequent performance and behavior. Skills that operate automatically and without thinking, such as jumping out of the path of a car.
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
the inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory.
retrieval clue
a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long-term memory (the smell of turkey = Thanksgiving)
specific pieces of information must be retrieved
when people are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it previously, or asked to identify it from a list of alternatives
levels-of-processing theory
the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is analyzed. The greater the intensity of its initial processing, the most likely we are to remember it.
Flashbulb memories
memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event. (where were you when Kennedy was shot?)
source amnesia
when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before
constructive processes
processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events
organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled. Our expectations and knowledge affect the reliability of our memories. (caucasian & african american w/ the knife)
repressed memories
recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious
false memories
develop when people are unable to recall the source of a memory or a particular event about which they have only vague recollections.
autobiographical memories
our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives.
the loss of information in memory through its nonuse
memory trace
an actual physical change in the brain that occurs when new material is learned
the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information
cue-dependent forgetting
forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle inforation that is in memory
proactive interference
information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material (past interfers with the present)
retroactive interference
the difficulty in the recall of information because of later exposure to different material (present interferes w/ the past)
long-term potentiation
certain neural pathways become easily excited when a new response is being learned
memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory
memory traces
the physical record of memory in the brain, depends on the kind of material being learned and the specific neural systems that process the information when it is first learned
a part of the brain's limbic system and plays a central role in the consolidation of memories.
another part of the limbic system that plays a part in memory. It's especially involved with memories involving emotion.
alzheimer's disease
an illness that includes among its symptoms severe memory problems
memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties
Retrograde amnesia
memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory occurs for events that follow an injury. Information can't be transferred from ST to LT resulting in the inability to remember anything other than what was in LTM before incident
korsakoff's syndrome
a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics. Hallucinations and repetition of the same story over and over