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89 Cards in this Set

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major explanatory focus is how the brainm nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental proceses.
Biological Perspective
Major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory and problem sovling, work and impact behavior.
Cognitive perspective
major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior.
Behavioral Perspective
major explanatory focus is how other people and the cultural context impact on behavior.
Socialculture perspective
The tendency, after learning aobut an outcome, to be overconfident in ones ability to have predicted it.
Hindsight Bias
the behavior of interest is observed in its natural setting, and the researcher does not intervere.
Naturalistic observation
An observer becomes part of the group being observed.
particular observation
researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time.
case study
researchers use questionaires and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people.
survey research
g-force induced loss of consciousness
G-LOC
cells that transmit information within the nervous system
neurons
cells in the nervous system that comprise the support system for the neurons
glial cell
fibers projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to receive info from other neurons
dendrites
part of the neuron that contains its nucleus and other biological machinery to keep the cell alive and to decide whether or not to pass on incoming info to other neruons
cell body
conducts the neural impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals triggering chemical communication with other neurons
axon
an insulationg layer covering an axon that allows for faster neural impulse
myelin sheath
chemical in nervous system that specializes in thransmitting info between neurons
neurotransmitter
microscopic gap between the neurons that neurotansmitters travel to carry their messages
synapse
visual display of the activity levels in various areas in the brain generated by detecting the positron emission created by the metabolization of radioactive glucose in each area
position emision tomography (PET)
drug or poison that increase the activity of one or more neurotransmitters
agonist
drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters
antagonist
neurotransmitter ivolved in memory and muscle movement
Acetycholine(ACH)
neurotransmitter involved in attention, thought processes, reward centers, and movement
dopamine
scarcity of dopamine in the basal ganglia cause muscle tremors, difficulty initiation movements, and rigidity of movement.
parkinson's disease
A protective mechanism by which the blood capilarries supplying the brain create a barrier that prevents dangerous substances access to the brain
blood-brain barrier
a drug for parkinsons that contains the precursors to dopamine so that once it is in the brain, it is converted to dopamine.
L-dopa
neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood.
Serotonin and Norepinephrine
main inhibitory neurontransmitter in the nervouse system. It is involved in lowering arousal and anxiety and regulating movement.
GABA
neurotransmitters that are involved in pain perception and relief
endorphins
The brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System(CNS)
links the CNS with the body's sensory receptors, muscles and glands
Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
intergrate info within the CNS through their communication with each other an between sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord
interneurons
neurons in the PNS that carry info to the CNS from sensory receptors, muscles and glands
sensory neurons
neurons in the PNS that carry movement commands from the CNS out to the rest of the body
motor meurons
the conduit between the brain and the PNS for incoming sensory data and outgoing movements commands to the muscles
spinal cord
Simple automatic action of the spinal cord not requiring the brain (knee jerk)
Spinal reflex
part of the PNS that carries sensory input from receptors to the CNS and relays commands from CNS to skeletal muscles to control their muscles
somatic nervous system
part of the PNS that regulates the functioning of our internal environment
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the autonomic nervous system that is in control when we are highly aroused.
sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that reurns the body to its natural resting state after being highly aroused
parasympathetic nervous system
commnication is achieved through hormones that are secreted by the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to target their sites
Endocrine Glandular System
a chemical messanger that is produced by and endocrine gland and carried through the bloodstream to target tissues throughout the body
Hormone
releases hormones for human growth and hormones that direct other endocrine glands to release their hormones
pituitary gland
bottom part of brain stem that is used in many essential body functions( heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, digestion)
Medula
a network of neurons running up the center of the brain stem that is responsible for different levels of arousal and consciosness
reticular formation
involved in the coordination of our movements, sense of balance and motor learning
cerebellum
serves as a relay station for incoming sensory info
Thalamus
involved in initiation and execution of movements
Basal Ganglia
made up of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala; plays an important role in our survival, memory, and emotions
limbic system
involved in critical motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sex
hypothalamus
involved in the formation of memories
hippocampus
involved in emotions by influencing aggression, anger and fear. allows us to interpret others emotions too.
amygdala
drugs that achieve their agonistic effect on serotonin by selectively blocking its uptake
SSRI's
control and info-processing center for the nervous system(perception, memory, language, decision making)
cerebral cortex
bridge of neurons connecting the two hemispheres
corpus callosum
allows us to move different parts of our body
motor cortex
allows us to sense pressure, temp., and pain
somatosensory cortex
70% of cortex, higher level cognitive processing such as perception and language
association cortex
speech area
broca's area
comprehension of speech and text area
wernickle's area
an individual's subjective awareness of their inner thinking and feeling and their external environment
consciousness
brain wave patterns that resemble those for an awake state while sleeping. most dreams occur during this
REM
inability to recognize familiar obejcts
visual agnosia
inability to recognize familiar faces
prosopagnoisa
inability to recognize familiars animals
zooagnosia
the minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus detected 50% of the time
abosolute threshold
minimum difference between 2 sensory stimuli detected 50% of the time
difference threshold
our sensitivity to unchanging and repetitious stimuli disappears over time
sensory adaption
conversion of physical energy into neural signals that the brain can understand
transduction
the focusing of light waves from objects of different distances directly on the retina
accommodation
light-sensitive layer of the eye which is composed of 3 layers of celss
retina
receptor cells in the retina that are resposible for bright light and color vision
cones
receptor cells in the retina that are prinicpally responsible for dim light and peripheral vision
rods
tiny pit in retina fill with cones
foves
process rods and cones go through that makes them sensitive to light in dim light conditions
dark adaptation
stats that the brain organizes sensory info into figures( center of attention) and ground(less distinct background)
figure-ground principle
initial info gathering and recoding by the sensory structures
sensation
interpretation by the brain of sensory information
perception
incoming sensory info as it travels up from the sensory structures to the brain
bottom-up processing
the brain's use of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations to interpret sensory info
top-down processing
interpretation of ambiguous sensory info in terms of how our past experiences have set us up to perceive it
perceptual set
the use of the present context of sensory info to determine its meaning
contextual effect
principle that the brain completes incomplete figures to form meaningful objects
closure
a line or shape that is perceived to be present bit does not really exist
subjective contour
the perceptual stability of size, shape, brightness, and color from different distances, angles, and lighting conditions
perceptaul constancy
our ability to perceive the distance of objects
depth perception
if the difference between the 2 retinal images of an objecct increases, the distance of an object from us decreases
retinal disparity
as parallel lines reced away from us, the appear to converge
linear perspective
if one object partially blocks another we perceive it as closer to us
interposition