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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
memory
the capacity to store and retrieve information
Ebbinghaus
used meaningless 3 letter units- wanted to maintian a "pure measure of memory"
rote learning
memorization by repitition
criterion performance
being able to repeat all of the words that u memorized correctly
implicit uses of memory
the info. becomes available without any concious thought
explicit uses of memory
you make a concious effort to recover info
declarative memory
the recollection of facts and events
procedural memory
memories for how to do things
encoding
the intial processing of information that leads to representation in memory
storage
the retention over time of encoded material
retreival
the recovery at a later time of stored information
sensory memory
each sensory memory preserves accurate representations of the physical features of sensory stimuli for a few seconds or less
iconic memory
allows large amounts of info. to be stored for breif durations. lasts about half a second
chunking
grouping items on the basis of similarity or combining them into larger patterns based on info. stored in long term memory
S.F
memorized 84 digits by grouping
Saul Sternberg
demonstrated the great speed at which participants could asses which info was in short- term focus
Baddley
3 components of working memory: phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive
phonological loop
holds and manipulates speech based info.
visuospatial sketchpad
(ex. using visual image to remember how many desks are in ure psych classroom)
central executive
controls attention and coordinates info. from the phonological loop and visuospacial sketchpad
working memory span
read sentances and remember final words 4 or more-high span 2.5 or fewer- low span
LTM (long term memory)
the storehouse of all the stuff acquired from sensory and STM memories- consitiutes each persons knowledge of world and self
encoding specificity
memories emerge the best when the context of retreival matches the context of when the memories where encoded
Tulving and Thomson
encoding specificity
primacy effect
rememebering the first few words on a list
recency effect
remembering the last few words on a list
contextual distinctiveness
"how different were the contexts in which I learned this information from the context in which I will try to recall it?"
retention interval
a period of time over which you must keep the information in memory
recall
reproduce the information to which you were previously exposed
recognition
the realization that a certain stimulus event is one you have seen or heard before
retrieval cues
the stimuli available as you search for a particular memory
Tulving
episodic and semantic types of declaritive memories
Episodic memories
perserve, individually, the specific events that you have personally experienced
semantic memories
generic, categorical memories, such as the meanings of words and concepts
proactive interference
info. you have acquired in the past makes id difficult to acquire new information
retroactive interference
new information makes it harder to remember old information
levels- of - processing theory
the deeper the level at which the info was processed, the more likely it is to be comitted to memory
transfer- appropriate processing
memory is best when the type of processing at encoding transfers to the process at retrieval
priming
the first experience of the word primes memory for later experiences
elaborative rehersal
while you are first commiting info. to memory, you elaborate on it so you remember it better (ex. put picture of mouse with tree)
mnemonics
encode a long series of facts by associating them with familiar and previously encoded info.
metamemory
questions of how memory works and how you know certain info.
Hart
research on the feelings- of- knowing
Method of Loci
can remember things by linking them to physical locations
cue familiarity hypothesis
people base their feelings of knowing on their familiarity with the retrieval cue (ex. know the answer with mult. choice)
accessability hypothesis
people base their judgements on the accessibility or availability of PARTIAL info. from memory
concepts
the mental representations of the categories you form
prototype
prototype shifts- (ex: typical dog averaged over all the dogs you have seen)
basic level
level at which people best categorize and think about objects (ex: APPLE. not piece of fruit or golden delicious)
Schemas
clusters of knowledge- encoding your knowlege of experience of the structure of the environment
reconstructive memory
reconstructing info. based on more general types of stored knowledge
Bartlett
demonstrated how individuals prior knowledge affected the way they remember new info. 3 reconstructive processes
leveling
simplifying the story
sharpening
overemphasizing certain details
assimilating
changing the details to better fit the participants own background or knowledge
Loftus
studies on eyewitness memory- postevent information
Lashley
work on the anatomy of memory- engram distributed throughout brain
engram
physical memory representation
4 major brain structures involved in memory
cerebellum, stiatum, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus
cerebellum
procedural mem. repitition
striatum
habit formation- forbrain
cerbral cortex
sensory memories
amygdala and hippocampus
memories of facts, dates, names, and emotional memories
amnesia
failure of memory over a prolonged period of time
developmental psychology
concerned with changes in physical and psychological funcitioning
normative investigations
look for a characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage
chronological age
the number of months or years since a persons birth
developmental age
the age at which most people show the particular level of physical or mental development demonstrated by that child
longitudinal design
same people are repeadedly observed and tested over time, often for many years
zygote
unique genetic potential- single- cell- 23 from mom and 23 from dad
Watson
founder of behaviorism- "lively squirming bit of flesh, capable of making few simple responses"
Fantz
babies have visual preferences- objects with contours
Gibson and Walk
examined how children respond to depth information- Visual Cliff
maturation
the process of growth typical of all members of a species who are reared in the species usual habitat
puberty
brings about sexual maturity
menarche
the onset of menstruation
cognitive development
the study of the processes and products of the mind as they emerge and change over time
Locke
baby = blank tablet - experience (nurture) affects it over time - Empiricism
Rousseau
nativist- evolution (nature) shapes child's development
Piaget
developed theories about the ways that children think, reason, and solve problems
schemes
mental structures that enable people to interpret the world
sensorimeter intelligence ?
guide sensorimeter sequences like sucking, grasping, and pushing
assimilation
modifies new info. to fit what the child already knows
accomodation
restructures child's existing schemes so new info. is accounted for
sensorimeter stage
extends from birth to age 2
object permenance
child's understanding that objects continue to exsist out of sight
properational stage
2 to 7 yrs.old
egocentrism
child can't take the perspective of anone other than themselves
centration
the tendancy to have their attention captured by more striking features of objects
concrete operations stage
7 to 11 yrs. old- child capable of mental operations
conservation
physical properties don't change when nothing is added or taken away (ex. liquid poured into taller cylinder)
formal operations stage
11yrs. on- abstract thinking- see world around u
Baillargeon
babies understanding that solid objects cannot pass through other solid objects
foundational theories
frameworks for understanding- to explain experiences of the world
Vygotsky
children develop through internalizaton
internatlization
absorb knowledge from social context which impacts how cognition unfolds over time
wisdom
expertise in the fundamental practices of life
Schaie
training programs which can reverse older adult's decline in some cognitive abilities (prevent disuse)
Baltes
strategy for successful aging- selective optimization with compensation
phenomes
the minimal meaningful units in language
child-directed speech
exaggerated high-pitch tone in which adults talk to babies
Chomsky
children are born with mental structures that facilitate the comprehension and production of language
Slobin
operating principles that consitute a child's language-making capacity
operating principles
children must learn the realtionship between the order in which words appear and what they mean
overregularization
overextending learned grammar rules (ex: foots, mouses)
social development
how people's social interactions and expectations chage across the life span
Erikson
people must complete 8 psychological stages which present conflicts
socialization
lifelong process in which peoples behaviors are shaped to conform to what society deems acceptable
attachment
intense relationship between mother, father and child
imprinting
infant becoming imprinted on first moving thing it sees- can not automatically be modified
Lorenz
young gees will imprint on a human instead of on e of their own kind
Bowlby
human attachment- infants and adults are biologically more likely to form attachments
Ainsworth
strange situation test- securly attached, insecurly attached-avoidant, insecurly attached- resistant
parenting style
intersection of demandingness and responsiveness
parenting practices
arise in response to particular goals
Harlow
infants attach to those providing contact comfort
cupboard theory
babies attach to parents because they provide them with food, their most basic need
Suomi
putting emotionally vulnerable monkeys in the foster care of supportive monkeys turns their lives around
Hall
storm-and-stress of adolecense
BEnedict and Mead
storm-and stress not applicable to western culture
initmacy
the capacity to make a full commitment to another person
selective social interaction theory
elderly are more selective in choosing social partners who satisfy their social needs
generativity
commitment beyond oneself to work, society, or future generations
ageism
prejudice against older people
sex differences
biologically based differences that distinguish males and females
gender
learned, sex-related behaviors and attitudes
gender identity
a person's sense of maleness or femaleness- acceptance of one's sex
gender roles
patterns of behavior regarded as appropriate by society for males and females
Maccoby
parents do not necessarily stamp in gender roles
morality
a system of beliefs about the rightness or wrongness of human acts
Kohlberg
studied moral reasoning- judgements about what is correct and incorrect in certain situations- 4 principles
Gilligan
ponted out that Kohlberg only studied boys
sensory registers *
lasts few secs, very short
after effects:
iconic- visual
echoic- auditory
standard memory model *
the mind is a computer- mind has 3 stores: sensory registers, STM, LTM
Maitenence
repeat info. keep it active
Elaborative
attach meaning to information- relate it to other knowledge
STM capacity
5-9 pieces of info. can be alive
Info fades in STM *
20-30 seconds
LTM size *
infinite
serial position curve *
supports the exsistance of STm vs. LTM
working memory *
temporary storage and processing of info. used
3 modules of Working Memory *
visual memory store, verbal memory store, central executive
visual memory store *
visal sketchpad for remembering pictures and retrieving them
verbal memory store *
STM
Central excecutive
make plans and decisions
context cues *
put in a situation you were first in makes you remember (ex. put in classroom, you remember ure teacher)
state-dependant memory *
mood at time of retrieval matches mood at memory
distributed practice *
LTM better spread out than cramming
nodes *
may contain thoughts, images, smells, emotions, or any other info
decay theory *
memory will fade with disuse
motivated forgetting *
forgetting can avoid painful memories
critical periods *
points in life where brain is prime to learn things
cross- sectional method *
compares groups of different ages at the same time
continuous change *
gradual alteration of behavior
diccontinuous change *
idea that 10yr. ols and 3yr. old think differently
orienting reflex *
infant pay more attention to new stimuli rather than familiar stimuli
suckinf reflex *
infants can be trained to suck a pacifier- sucking increases with new stimuli
brain waves *
differ in infants between new and familiar stimuli
epistemology *
philosophy concerned with the Acquisition of knowledge
Animism *
belief that everything is alive
Centration *
can only deal with one dimension at a time (height but not width)
irreversibility *
Can't imagine that something didn't occur
processing speed *
mental quickness increases as children get older
knowledge base *
children gain knowledge base with experience
Automatization *
the ability to preform some tasks automatically
Metacognition
"thinking about thinking"
quantatative continuous *
info. processes develop over time
qualitative discontinuous *
diff. stages over diff. ages