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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
in Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression
according th Freud, the way in which the Id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
pleasure principle
Freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between enviromental demands(reality), conscience(superego), and instinctual need(Id); now often used as a synonym for self
the way in which ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world
reality principle
the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ego ideal
the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be
edo ideal
the energy generated by sexual instinct
a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development
1st psychosexual stage; infants erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue
oral stage
2nd psychosexual stage; child's erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination
anal stage
3rd psychosexual stage; erotic feelings center around the genitals
phallic stage
a period when the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage
latency period
the final psychosexual stage;includes normal adult sexual development; which is usually marked by mature sexuality
Genital stage
focusses on the unconscious and psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality
says that Libido does not represent all of life's forces
Carl Jung's theory of personality
according to Jung, 1 of 2 levels of unconscious; it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences and undeveloped ideas
personal unconscious
according to Jung, 2nd level of unconscious; the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species
collective unconscious
our public self; the mask we put on to represent ourselves to others
the female archetype as it is expressed in the male personality
a person who usually focusses on social life and the external world instead of on his or her own internal experiences
a person who usually focusses on his or her own thoughts and feelings
people who regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking and feeling
rational individuals
people who base thier actions on perceptions, either through the sense or thru unconscious processes
irrational individuals
accoriding to Adler, the person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness
in Adler's theory, the fixation on feeling of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis
inferiority complex
believed that people possess innate positive motives toward personal and social perfection
Alfred Adler
believed that childhood experiences have a major effect on personality; culture and not anatomy determines many of the personality traits that differeniate women from men
Karen Horney
believed the quality of the parent child relationship affects the development of the personality; described 8 life stages
Erik Erikson
the individual's reation to real or imagined threats
Horney's term for irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems and minimizing anxiety
neurotic trends
any personality theory that asserts the fundemental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
humanistic personality theories
believed that people develop their personality in the service of positive goals
Carl Rogers
Roger's term for the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming
actualizing tendency
the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that person's behavior
unconditional positive regard
dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways
personality traits
a statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by Cattell to identify trait clusters
factor analysis
five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality
Big Five
what are the big five?
1.extroversion 2. agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness/ dependability 4. Emotinal stability 5. Culture/Intellect/Openness
view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate enviroment
Cognitive-social learning theories
in Bandura's view, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a resut of behaving in certain ways
according to Rotter, an expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control
locus of control
according to Bandura, the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
In bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations
performance standards
personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way
objective tests
personality tests consisting of ambiguous and unstructured material
projective tests
a projctive tests composed of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality
Rorschach test
a projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story
thematic apperception test
defense mechanism that occurs when people refuse to face the obvious reality
defense mechanism that suppressed thoughts'feelings into the unconscious
defense mechanism when putting out feeling in something other than the source of the feelings; withholding feeling from the intended target
defense mechanism- "he made me do it"; blame someone else
defense mechanism when acting th oposite of what you feel
reaction formation
defense mechanism when making excuses for behavior that may have been bad
defense mechanism that make an aversion to immature behavior
defense mechanism when finding socially acceptable outlets for feelings or needs