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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Opium/Morphine
block pain receptors in brain by stimulating opioid receptors in the brain
Pleasure or pain – it depends
Conduction Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Nerve Hearing Loss/Congenital
 hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerve
Cochlear Implants
Seem very effective with sensory loss – much more so than standard aids.
Chemosenses (taste & smell)
 Gustation not the same as flavor
papillae
each of these contain many (up to 200) taste bud.
The Five Qualities of Taste
 Sourness – acids

 Sweetness-similar molecule to Bitterness

 Saltiness – sodium molecules

 Bitterness –similar molecule to Sweetness

 The fifth is umami which refers to the taste of monosodium glutamate (MSG) – found in many proteins
The Dimension of Odor
 The olfactory system uses up to 1000 different receptor molecules

 Connected to the limbic system (emotion/memories).

 Not yet known exactly which molecules stimulate which receptors

 Analytic system – identify different odors. (odor molecules stimulate specific receptor cells) (does not combine different scents)

 Araneda, Kini, and Firestein (2000) some receptors are specific to some molecules but not others.

 Integrated with taste
The Somatosenses
 Our ability to respond to touch, vibration, pain, warmth, coolness, limb position, muscle length/stretch, head position, etc.
 Interaction between say touch and pain define tickle & itch.
Free nerve endings
most common, both smooth and hairy skin.
Pacinian Corpuscles
information about vibration
Temperature
signals change in temperature. Coolness receptors seem to lie at the surface of the skin. Also helps us to adapt to the ambient temp.
Pressure
require that the skin is actually moved inward (lighter = touch) – sensitivity to pressure differs across the body ( lips and fingertips most sensitive) – two point discrimination threshold.
Valium
depress the emotional but not the intensity of the pain
I don't care
Gate-Control Theory
 theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
 “gate” opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers
Phantom limb pain
-may be controlled by the parietal cortex which provides information about our own body.
- sensation of having a limb when limb is amputated
ghost hand