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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an organized cluster of knowledge that people use to understand and interpret information
the process of absorbing new information into existing schemas
the process of changing existing schemas in order to absorb new information
the first stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development (birth to age 2) in which infants develop the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions
sensorimotor stage
an awaremess an understanding of one's own cognitive processes
the realization that an object continues to exist even if you can't see it or touch it
object permanence
the first menstrual period
overt language that is not directed to others but, rather, is self-directed
private speech
the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development (ages 2 to 7), marked by the full emergence of representational thought
preoperational stage
a process of cognition in which people absorb knowledge from their social surroundings
the tendency to view the world from one's own perspective without recognizing that others may have different points of view
the understanding that certain physical properties of an ovject remain unchanged despite superficial changes in its apperance
the third stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development (ages 7 to 11), a time in which children can perform mental operations on tangible objects or events and gradually engage in logical reasoning
concrete operational stage
the nonreproductive physical features that distinguish the two sexes from one another
secondary sex characteristics
the nonreproductive physical features that distinguish the two sexes from one another
secondary sex characteristics
the fourth and final stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development (ages 11 or beyond), during which a person is able to reason abstractly and make predictions about hypothetical situations
formal operational stage
a theory of other people's mental states - their beliefs, feelings, and desires - that allows them to predict how these people will behave in specific situations
theory of mind
the cognitive range between what a child can do on her or his own and what the child can do with the help of adults or more-skilled children
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
the first level of maral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, chatacterized by avoiding punishment and seeking rewards
preconventional morality
adolescents' belief that their thoughts, feelings, and behavior are constantly being focused on by other people
imaginary audience
the second level of maral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of maral development, characterized by conforming to societal norms and laws
conventional morality
the third and final level of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, characterized by making moral judgments based on abstract universal principles
postconventional morality
the transitions period between childhood and adulthood
the growth period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
the body organs that make sexual reproduction possible
primary sex characteristics
the tendency for adolescents to believe that their experiences and feelings are unique
personal fable
the progressive deterioration of the body that culminates in death
the ending of menstruation
the systematic physical, cognitive, and social changes in the individual occurrig between conception and death
the many changes that transform a fertilized egg into a newborn baby
prenatal development
the first two weeks of prenatal development, from conception until the zygote implants itself in the wall of the uterus
zygote stage
the second stage of prenatal development that lasts from the third week through the eighth week of pregnancy
embryonic stage
the last and longest stage in prenatal development that extends from the ninth week after conception until birth
fetal stage
and disease, drug, or other noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women consuming large quantities of alcohol
fetal alcohol syndrome
the strong emotional bond a young child forms with its primary caregiver
the fear and distress that infants display when separated from their primary caregiver
separation anxiety
the fear and distress that infants often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
stranger anxiety
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over time
longitudinal study
the "theory" or "story" that a person constructs about herself or himself through social interaction
a psychological state where you take yourself as an object of attention
a person's evaluation of his or her self-concept
the knowledge that one is a male or a female and the internalization of this fact into one's self-concept
gender identity
a person's sense of personal identification with a particular ethnic group
ethnic identity