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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the consistent and distinctive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in which an individual engages
collection or constellation of traits that describes the functioning of the person across situations and settings
personality styles
according to Freud, the relatively small part of our mind that we are aware of at the moment
conscious mind
according to Freud, those mental processes that are not currently conscious but could become so at any moment
preconscious mind
according to Freud,the thoughts, desires, feelings, and memories that are not consciously available to us but that nonetheless shape our everyday behavior
unconscious mind
an entirely unconscious part of the mind that contains our sexual and aggressive drives
the process by which the id seeks to immediately satisfy whatever desire in currently active
pleasure principle
the part of our minds that includes our consciousness and that balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality
an objective personality test consisting of true-false items that measure various personality demensions and clinical conditions such as depression
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
the process by which the ego seeks to delay gratification of id desires until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
reality principle
the part of our minds that includes our conscience and counterbalances the more primitive demands of the id
the part of our minds that includes our conscience and counterbalances the more primitive demands of the id
the fixed sequence of childhood developmental stages during which the id primarily seeks sexual pleasure by focusing its energies on distinct erogenous zones
psychosexual stages
a tendency to persist in pleasure-seeking behaviors associated with an earlier psychosexual stage where conflicts were unresolved
in Freud's theory, the first stage of psychosexual development during with the child derives pleasure by engaging in oral activities
oral stage
the Freud's theory, the second stage of psychosexual development during which the child derives pleasure from defecation
anal stage
in Freud's theory the third stage of psychosexual development during which the child derives pleasure from masturbation
phallic stage
in Freud's theory, the fourth stage of psychosexual development during which the child is relatively free from sexual desires and conflict
latency stage
the Freud's theory, the last stage of psychosexual development during which mature sexual feelings toward others begin to emerge, and the ego learns to manage and direct these feelings
genital stage
in Freud's theory, a very basic defense mechanism in which people move anxiety-arousing thoughts from the conscious mind into the unconscious mind
in Freud's theory, the ego's methods of keeping threatening and unacceptable material out of consciosness and thereby reducing anxiety
defense mechanism
a defense mechanism in which people offer logical self-justifying explanations for their actions in place of the real, more anxiety-producing, unconsious reasons
a defense mechanism allowing people ot express unacceptable feelings or ideas by consciously expressing their exact oppostie
reaction formation
a defense mechanism that diverts people's sexual or aggressive urges toward objects that are more acceptavle than those that actually stimulate their feelings
a powerful defense mechansim in which people perceive their own aggressive or sexual urges not in themselves, but in others
a defense mechanism in which people feced with intense anxiety psychologicall retreat to a more infantile developmental stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
in Jung's personality theory, the part of the unconscious mind containing inherited memories shared by all human beings
collective unconcsious
in Jung's personality theory, inherited images that are passed down from our prehistoric ancestors and that reveal themselves as universal symbols in dreams, religion, and art
people who are preoccupied with their inner world and tend to be hesitant and cautious when interacting with people
people who are focused on the external world and tend to be confident and socially outgoing
an attitude of complete acceptance towar another person regardless of what she or he has said or done; it is based on the belief in that person's essential goodness
undonditional positive regard
an attitude of acceptance toward another person only when she or he meets your standards
conditional positive regard
fleeting but intense moments when a person feels happy, absorbed, and extremely capable
peak experiences
a descriptive approach to personality that identifies stable characteristics that people display over time and across situations
trait perspective
a relatively stable tendency to behave in a particular way across a variety of situations
the tendency to bolster and defend self-esteem by taking credit for positive events while denying blame for negative events
self-serving bias
fleeting but intense moments when a person feels happy, absorbed, and extremely capable
peak experiences
a trait theory that asserts that personality consists of five traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness)
five-factor model
the study of the combined effects of both the situation and the person on human behavior
a psychological perspective that examines how people interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about themselves, others, social interactions, and relationships
social-cognitive perspective
the social-cognitive belief that personality emerges from an ongoing mutual interaction among people's cognitions, their actions, and their environment
reciprocal determinism
a person's belief about his or her ability to perform behaviors that should bring about a desired outcome
the degress to which we expect that outcomes in our lives depend on our own actions and personal characteristics versus the actions of uncontrollable environmental forces
locus of control
psychological tests that ask people to repond to ambiguous stimuli or situation in ways that will reveal their unconscious motives and desires
projective tests
a projective personality test in which people are shown ten symmetrical inkblots and asked what each might be depicting
rorschach inkblot test
personality tests that ask direct, unambiguous questions about a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior
objective tests