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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
an approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on the theory, adn testing those hyptheses empirically
the scientific method
systematic explanation of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows, us to predict, new facts, and permits us to exercise a degree of control over the phenomenon
specific, testable predictions derived from a theory
a theory or body of knowledge that portrays itself as a science but is not based on empirical observation or is inconsistent with broader scientific theory
-Wundt and Titchner
-school of psychology that stresses the basic units of experience and the combinations in which they occur
- theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its enviroment
functionalist theory
- personality theories that behavior results from psychological dynamics that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness
psychodynamic theories
-school of psychology that studies only observable and measureable behavior
*skinner- added reinforcement
school of psychology that studies how people percievev and experience objects as whole patterns
gestalt psychology
school of psychology that focusses on the meaningless and alienation on modern life, and how these factors lead to apathy and psychological problems
existential psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential
humanistic psychology
school of psycholgy devoted to the study of mental processes in the brodest sense
cognitive psychology
an approach to, and subfied of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes, their adaptive value, and the purposes they continue to serve
evolutionary psychology
th psychological and social meanings attached to being biolically male or female
general beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical by each sex
gender stereotypes
behaviors that we expect each gender to engage in
gender roles
the tangible goods and values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another
a subpopulation of a species, defined according to a identifiable characteristic
a common cultural heritage, including religion, language, and/or ancestry, that is shared by a group of individuals
that aspect of an individual self-concept that is based on his or her awareness of being a member of a particular ethnic group
ethnic identity
...offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and perceptions for changing those roles
feminist theory
refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, and both sexes
sexual orientation
research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural setting rather than in the laboratory
naturalistic observation
expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed
observer bias
intensive desciption and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals
case study
research technique in which questionnares or interviews are administeredto a selected group of people
survey research
research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
a research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior
experimental method
individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in a experiment
in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other
independent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is measured to see how it is changes by manipulations
dependent variable
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable
experimental group
in a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable
control group
expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation
experimental bias
selection of cases from a larger population
sample in which each potential participant had a equal chance of being selected
random sample
sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population
representative sample