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61 Cards in this Set

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What is memory?
Memory refers to the mental processes that enable us to acquire, retain, and retrieve information.
What are the three (3) fundemental processes/functions of memory?
Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
What is Encoding?
Encoding refers to the process of transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system.
What is Storage?
Storage is the process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time.
What is Retrieval?
Retreival involves recovering the stored information so that we are consciously aware of it.
What is the Stage Model of Memory?
The Stage Model of Memory describes memory as haveing three (3) stages, Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory, and Long Term Memory.
What is Sensory Memory?
Sensory Memory registers a great deal of information from the environment and hodl it for a very brief period of time (3 seconds or less).
What is Short-Term Memory?
Short-Term Memory refers to the active, working memory system. Holds 7 (+/- 2) bits of information for approximately 20 seconds.
What is Long-Term Memory?
Long-Term Memory is the third stage of memory, long-term storage, It has infinite storage and can hold information for a lifetime.
What is Echoic Memory?
Auditory Sensory Memory, lasts for 3-4 seconds.
What is Iconic Memory
Visual Sensory Memory, lasts .25 to .5 seconds.
What is Maintenance Rehearsal?
Maintenance Rehearsal is an excercise of continuously/repeatedly refreshing a piece of information that is stored in short-term memory so that it is not last after 20 seconds. This is not a good strategy for creating long-term memories.
What is Chunking?
The process of grouping related items together into a single unit to be stored in memory.
What is Working Memory?
Short-Term memory, used for working multi-stage math problems and such.
What is Elaborative Rehearsal?
Elaborative Rehearsal involves focusing on the _meaning_ of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory.
What is Levels-of-Processing Framework?
According to the Levels-of-processing Framework, information processed at "deeper" level is more likely to be remembered than information processed at a "shallow" level. A "deeper" level of processing means that more consideration is given to the meaning of the information being stored.
What is Procedural Memory?
Procedural Memory refers to the long-term memory of how to perform different skills. This kind of memory is often implicit memory (memory without awareness)
What is Episodic Memory?
Episodic Memory refers to your long-term memory of specific events or episodes, including the time and place that they occured. This kind of memory tends to be more of an explicit memory (memory with awareness of the memory).
What is Semantic Memory?
Semantic Memory includes general knowledge and includes facts, names, definitions, concepts, and ideas. It is like a person encyclopedia. This kind of memory can be both explicit and implicit (usually more explicit)
What is Explicit Memory?
Explicit Memory is "memory with awareness". These are often called "declarative memories" because, if asked, you can "declare" the information.
What is Implicit Memory?
Implicit Memory is "memory without awareness". Implicit memories cannot be conciously recollected but they can still influence your behavoir, knowledge, or how you perform a task.
What is Clustering?
Clustering means organizing items into related groups, or "clusters" during recall.
What is the Semantic Network Model?
The Semantic Network Model proposes that when one concept is activated in the semantic network, it can spread in any number of directions, activating other associations in the semantic network.
What is Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT)?
The TOT experience refers to the inability to get at a bit of information that you're absolutely certain is stored in your memory.
What is Retrieval?
Retrieval refers to the process of acecssing, or retrieving stored information.
What is Retrieval Cue Failure?
Retrieval Cue Failure refer to the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues.
What is Recall?
Recall is uncued memory retrieval, also known as "free recall". (Essay Questions)
What is Cued Recall?
Cued Recall is the retrieval of memories with the help of cues relevant or part of the memory that is stored. (Fill in the Blank)
What is recognition?
Recognition involves identifying the correct information some several possible choices. (Multiple Choice)
What is the Serial Position Effect?
The Serial Position Effect is the tendency to remember the first and last members of a list, but to forget the middle members of that list.
What is the Primacy Effect?
The Primacy Effect is part of the Serial Position Effect, it is the tendency to remember the first items in a list.
What is the Recency Effect?
The Recency Effect is part of the Serial Position Effect, it is the tendency to remember the last items in a list.
What is the Encoding Specificity Principle?
The Encoding Specificity Principle proposes that retreival is more likely to occur when retrieval conditions are similar to the original learning conditions.
What is Mood Congruence?
Mood Congruence refers to the idea that a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood.
What is a Flashbulb Memory?
A Flashbulb Memory is thought to involve the recall of very specific details or images surrounding a significant, rare, or vivid event.
What is Forgetting?
Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information that was previously stored/available.
What is Encoding Failure?
Encoding Failure occurs when the information was never encoded properly for storage in long-term memory.
What is Prospective Memory?
Prospective Memory is remember to do something in the future.
What is Decay Theory?
Decay Thoery proposes that we forget memories because we don't use them and they fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes.
What is Source Memory (aka Source Monitoring)?
Source Memory (aka Source Monitoring) refer to our ability to remember the original details or features of a certain memory, including when, where, and how we acquired the information.
What is Deja Vu?
Deja Vu is a brief but intense feeling of remember a scene or an event this is actually being experienced for the first time. French for "already seen".
What is Interference Theory?
Interference Theory proposes that forgetting is caused by one memory compoeting with or replacing another.
What is Displacement Effect?
Displacement Effect occurs when one piece of information enter into short-term memory, replacing another.
What is Retroactive Interference?
Retroactive Interference occurs when a new memory interferes with an old memory.
What is Proactive Interference?
Proactive Interference occurs when an old memory interferes with a new memory.
What is Suppression?
Suppression involves the deliberate, concious effort to forget information.
What is Repression?
Repression is motivated forgetting that occurs unconciously.
Who is Elizabeth Loftus?
An expert on memory loss and distortion.
What is the Misinformation Effect?
Misinformation Effect occurs when a memory is distorted or lost due to misinformation being presented after the original memory was formed.
What is Source Confusion?
Source Confusion arises when the true source of the memory is forgotten, or distorted.
What is a False Memory?
A False Memory is a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that not actually happen.
What is a Schema?
An organized cluster of knowledge and information about particular topics.
What is a Script?
A remembered sequence of actions of behavoirs.
What is Imagination Inflation?
Imagination Inflation is a memory phenomenon in which vividly imaginging an event markedly increases confidence the the event actually occured.
What is Amnesia?
Amnesia is severe memory loss.
What is Long-Term Potentiation?
Long-Term Potentiation refers to a long-lasting increase in synaptic strenth.
What is Retrograde Amnesia?
Retrograde Amnesia occurs when one is unable to remember some or all of their past. (Backward-acting amnesia)
What is Memory Consolidation?
Memory Consolidation is the gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories into stable, enduring memory codes.
What is Anterograde Amnesia?
Anterograde Amnesia is the loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories. (Forward-acting amnesia)
What is Dementia?
Dementia is the progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occuring as the result of a disease of condition.
What is Alzheimer's Disease?
Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive disease that destroys the brain's neurons, gradually impairing memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself. It is the most common form of dementia.