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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
evidence or statements which justify or excuse a defendant from guilt or fault
end game strategy
a behavioral and psychological commitment by mass murderers and serial killers who don't expect to survive or be captured by the police after they commit their heinous crime

EX: 9/11 terrorist plane hijackers
rape empathy
the general ability to take the psychological perspetive of either a rape victim or a rapist
attribution theory
the explanations people make for the causes of their behavior and the behavior of others.

The use of dispositional attributions that rely on the person's ability level, personality, or even temporary states as explanations for the conduct in question.
the process and consequences of victimization experiences and how victims (or survivors) recover
4 myths about battered women
1. They provoke the assaults inflicted on them
2. They are free to leave these violent relationships anytime they want
3. Battering is a lower-class, ethnic-minotity phenomenon
4. They are masochists
cycle of violence
1. Tension-building stage - a pattern of emotional and behavioral instability. A man may be loving and attentive, but when disappointments or disagreements occur, the tension builds.
2. Acute battering incident - the woman has become too dependant on the man to break it off easily. She thinks she can mollify his anger and change his behavior.
3. Contrite phase - man apologizes, persuades the woman he is a changed man (an empty pledge).

Cycle repeats itself.
borderline personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by impulsivity and instability in moods, behavior, self-image, and inter-personal relationships.

People with this disorder are drawn into intense relationships in which they are particularly unable to tolerate certain emotions, they're demandingly dependant which leads to jealousy, rage, aggression, and guilt.
5 elements of battered woman syndrome
1. Learned helplessness - woman believes there's nothing she can do to escape the batterer or improve her life.
2. Woman falls more under his domination. Believes she has diminished alternatives. Economic dependence.
3. Restricts outside activities and has less contact with friends and relatives. Grows increasingly fearful of threats and attacks.
4. Diminished self-esteem, guilty and ashamed of multiple failures. Increased rage and resentment towards partner.
5. Woman is hypervigilant after years of victimization.

This heightened sensitivity toward danger cues can motivate her to kill her assailant and claim self defense.
3 rape myths
1. Woman cannot be raped against their own will.
2. Women secretly wish to be raped.
3. Most accusations of rape are faked.
How many rape reports are faked?
Burt's ideology about what encourages acceptance of rape myths
1. Sexual conservatism
2. Adversarial Sexual Beliefs (sexual relationships are fundamentally exploitive)
3. Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence
4. Sex Role Stereotyping
Hall and Hirschman's 4 factors which describe most rapists
1. High levels of sexual arousal that aren't inhibited by aggression.
2. Attitudes toward women that justify aggressiveness towards females.
3. Loss of control over emotions such as anger and hostility that are acted out in sexual aggression.
4. Long-standing antisocial personality disorder.
3 important categories of psychological dysfunction associated with Rape Trauma Syndrome
1. Emotional responses - fear, guilt.
2. Disturbance of functioning - nightmares, insomnia, social withdrawal.
3. Changes in lifestyles - unemployment, moving away, divorce.
Rape Shield Law
Protects victim from questions about sexual past and current sex life, other than rape.
quid pro quo harassment
implicit or explicit bargain in which the harasser promises a reward or threatens punishment

EX: "Sleep with me or you'll fail this course."
hostile workplace environment harassment
gender harassment and unwanted sexual attention
"abuse excuse" defense
"the legal tactic by which criminal defendants claim a history of abuse as an excuse for violent retaliation"