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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the prevalence rate of clinical depression amongst the elderly?
Very low but increases after the age of 80.
Suicide rates highest amongst elderly.
What is reactive attachment disorder?
Marked disturbance in child's ability to relate to other people. Before 5ys.
Inhibited subtype
Disinhibited subtype
Must have been exposed to serious neglect/abuse. Inadequate care causes syndrome.
Childre in institutional settings.
What are the rates and prevalence of childhood depression, compared to that of adults and in the past?
Adults: women 20%, men 13%
Children: .4-3%
Less likely to suffer from major depression.
Rate of depression is going up, age of onset is going down.
What is one of the most powerful predictors of future antisocial behavior?
Cruelty towards animals.
Conduct disorder is closely related to what adult disorder?
Antisocial personality disorder
Does childhood depression hit boys or girls more?
Balanced; only after puberty is depression more prevalent in females.
What is the prevalence of children with psychological problems?
1 in 5
What are possible causes of ADHD?
Low dopamine
What is separation anxiety disorder?
Children who live every minute of the day with terror that they might be separated from their families. Twice as common in girls. Physical complaints used as a ploy; complain of headaches, pains. Increased risk for panic attacks when older. Usually after traumatic event, close-knit families. Cognitive-behavioral therapy.
What is paranoid personality disorder?
Pervasive and long-standing distrust and suspiciousness of others. Hypersensitive, scan environment for cues are being singled out for mistreatment. Ready to attack. Blame others, cannot accept failures themselves.
What are the different clusters of personality disorders?
Cluster A: odd, eccentric
Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, erratic
Cluster C: anxious, fearful
What are some causes of conduct disorder?
Social: negative reinforcement from parents.
Are under-stimulated.
Low empathy combiend iwth low emotional arousal.
Rejection by peers --> join gangs.
Genetic effect.
Preganancy complications.
Low levels of seratonin.
What is amniocentesis?
Test administered to mother after 13th week of pregnancy. Small amount of amniotic fluid withdrawn and tested for abnormal chromosomes. Option to end pregnancy.
What is Schizotypal personality disorder?
Long-standing oddities in thinking, perceiving, communicating, and behaving. Not as bad as schizophrenia though.
Do not lose contact with reality.
Idea of reference
What is the idea of reference?
Feeling that you are the object of special attention from others. Breeding ground for suspiciousness and paranoia.
What is conduct disorder?
Repeated lying, fighting, aggression, muggings, armed robberies, rapes in adolescence. Antisocial. Before 15 ys.
How are childhood phobias treated?
How does one treat autism?
Intensive behavioral therapy and educational interventions. Very important for parents to participate too.
Increase of IQ up to 28 pts.
IQ score of child is one of most sensitive early indices of later outcome. Also if develop spoken language before 5ys and if do not seizure.
What are the causes of schizotypal personality disorder?
Geneticetically related to schizophrenia.
Irregularities in fingerprints.
What is mental retardation?
Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (IQ <70) combined with inability to cope with demands of daily life.
Tested by WISC-R
More males than females.
Highly prevalent disorder.
Down Syndrome, Fragile X, Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18
Insistence on Sameness and Autism
Fixation with objects
Very very rigid habits
Intense attachments interfere with normal development
Repetition of motor behavior
What are the causes of autism?
Psychogenic theories - Refrigerator moms. No evidence.
Biological theories - high concordance among MZ twins. Autistic children have much larger than normal brain volumes but smaller cerebellum. Tendency to have epileptic seizures. Decreased seratonin activity.
Social Development and Autism
Aloofness, physical and emotional distance, no normal attachment to caregivers.
Fundamental problems in understanding expressions of emotions in others and in communicating their own emotions.
How is childhood depression treated?
Antidepressant drugs
Language development and autism
Very retarded, if develops at all.
High-pitched, bird-like squeaking noise.
Pronoun reversal
Adding -ing
What is Schizoid personality disorder?
Absence of desire for social involvement, indifference to praise and criticism, insensitivity to feelings of others, lack of social skills. Withdraw, reserved, seclusive. Extreme introverts. Bland, contricted feelings. No abnormal ideas; just extreme introverts.
How is paranoid personality disorder treated?
Cognitive-behavioral therapy that emphasizes self-disclosure and trust. Increase client's sense of self-efficacy regarding ability to handle situations. Discard defensiveness.
What is PDD-NOS?
Autistic-like behavioral abnormalities and developmental delays, but does not meet criteria for autism or other disorders. Catch-all category.
what is Rett's disorder?
Very rare. Onset 1-4ys. Only females, involves X chromosome and is lethal in male fetus.
Normal until age 1, when slowdown in head growth, decline in motor skills. Mentally retarded, withdraw from social interaction, stereotypic and repetitive movements.
What is the idea of reference?
Feeling that you are the object of special attention from others. Breeding ground for suspiciousness and paranoia.
What is the preferred treatment of Conduct Disorder?
Multisystemic Therapy (MST)
Used with most severely disturbed and aggressive children.
Family-baed approach that interenes in all aspects of child's daily life: home, school, peers. Therapist meets directly with teachers, peers.
What is Asperger's Disorder?
Milder form of autism. Like autism, more common in males than females. Late onset, in adolescence. Impairment in social interaction, repetitive behaviors, limited interests.
How is ADHD treated?
Drug therapy - but need STIMULANTS, not tranquilizers. Ritalin.
Behavioral therapy
What is the cause of paranoid personality disorder?
Higher rate in families with schizophrenia.
High comorbidity with Axis I: depression, anxiety, substance abuse.
Onset with advanced age, after significant life change.
Intellectual Development and Autism
IQ usually that of mental retardation
Higher IQ = better chance at functioning
Savants - unusually high area of ability in an individual with low abilities in other areas.
What are some causes associated with mental retardation?
PKU - unable to metabolize an amino acid. Results in irreversible, severe brain damage. But if identified by urine test shortly after birth, can do OK.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
What is Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)?
Negativistic, hostile, temperamental, and defiant towards authority figures for over at least 6 months.
Don't carry out acts, like kids with conduct disorder; but may develop conduct disorder in adolescence.
Come from unstable homes where parents use harsh, inconsistent punishment.
Low serotonin activity.
Treated with behavioral techniques.
What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
Developmentally inappropriate attentional problems, impulsiveness, motor hyperactivity. Inability to stick with tasks.
Much more boys.
2-5% prevalence in preadolescents.
How do children with ADHD fare as they get older?
More likely to develop conduct disorder, deliquency, or drug abuse; do poorly in school; learning disorders. As adults, interpresonal problems, frequent job changes, traffic accidents, marital disruptions, legal infractions.
What is childhood disintegrative disorder?
Onset between 3-5ys. Loss of language, social, motor skills. Very similar to autism. But rarer, and more common in males. Probably due to abnormal development of nervous system.
What are the emotional childhood disorders?
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Separation Anxiety Disorder
What are the childhood Developmental Disorders?
Rett's Disorder
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Asperger's Disorder
Mental Retardation