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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavior
Anything an organism does - blinking, walking drooling
Mental Processes
internal, subjective experiences that we infer from behavior
Socrates
-philosopher/teacher to Plato
-knowledge is innate
-executed
(469-399BC)
Plato
-teacher of Aristotle
-knowledge is innate
-interested in connection between behavior and physiology
-started own school "The Academy
-(428-348BC)
Aristotle
opposite view of Socrates and Aristotle
-mind and soul is not separable
-use logic and observation
(384-322)
Renee Descartes
(1595-1650)French philosopher
-innate ideas exist
-mind is distinct from body and survives the bodies death
-concluded that fluid in brain contains "animal spirits" and flows from brain to nerves to muscles
-memories formed by experiences opening pores in the brain
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) British scientist
-knowledge is not innate along with Aristotle but originates from experience
-a Radical Empiricist
Empiricism
knowledge originates from experience
John Locke
(1932-1704) British philosopher
-"mind is like a blank slate when born"
-"An Essay of Human Understanding"
Willhelm Wundt
-first psychology experiment in 1879
-University of Leipzig
-measured time lag between sound and pressing key
Structuralism
interested in "elements of mind"
-introspection-look inward and report elements of ones experience when sensing something
Functionalism
-effective to look at function of thoughts and feelings
-exploration of down-to-earth emotions, memories, will power, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of conciousness
Charles Darwin
1831-sailed noticing variation of species
1859-"Origins of Species"
theory of natural selection
Biopychosocial Approach
looking at biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels all together
Andrea Yates
drowned 5 kids in tub
cognitive level=she believed she was possessed and believed children were not developing correctly
biological=mood disorder in family, postpartum depression
social-cultural=unsupportive husband, doctors urged to have no more children
Edward Titchener
student of Wundt
Structuralist aiming to discover the elements of mind
William James
American philosopher/psychologist
-functionalist who taught first American psych course
- admitted first woman, Mary Calkins, into
Harvard seminar against objections of Harvard's president
-all men dropped the course
Mary Calkins
First woman admitted into Harvard
-was denied degree and offered a degree instead from the sister college (Radcliffe)
-was the first APA president in 1905
natural selection
traits that endure are the one that enable organisms to survive
Latane and Darley
1970-woman falling off of ladder
-the bigger the group people are in, the less the group tends to help
- the fewer the number of people, the greater they tend to help
Hindsight bias
tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that we could have foreseen
-"I-knew-it-all-along" bias
Edward Titchener
student of Wundt
Structuralist aiming to discover the elements of mind
William James
American philosopher/psychologist
-functionalist who taught first American psych course
- admitted first woman, Mary Calkins, into
Harvard seminar against objections of Harvard's president
-all men dropped the course
Mary Calkins
First woman admitted into Harvard
-was denied degree and offered a degree instead from the sister college (Radcliffe)
-was the first APA president in 1905
natural selection
traits that endure are the one that enable organisms to survive
Latane and Darley
1970-woman falling off of ladder
-the bigger the group people are in, the less the group tends to help
- the fewer the number of people, the greater they tend to help
Hindsight bias
tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that we could have foreseen
-"I-knew-it-all-along" bias
Peripheral Nervous System
links CNS with receptors, muscles, and glands

subcategory=somatic and autonomic
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
controls the glands and muscles of internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System
arouses

ex-raises heart rate, blood pressure, slows digestion, raises blood sugar, cools by perspiration, making you ready for action

also involved with lying
Parasympathetic Nervous System
opposite of sympathetic - calms

lowers heartbeat, bloodsugar...
Nervous System
body's speedy electrochemical information network
Endocrine System
secretes chemical messengers known as hormones
Adrenal Glands
top of the kidneys

releases adrenaline/epinephrine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine to increase heart rate...etc
Pituitary Gland
pea sized structure under hypothalamus in core of the brain

releases hormones controlling growth
reticular formation
fingershaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus
brainstem
oldest and innermost region consisting of medulla and pons; its an extension of the spinal cord and ret. formation passes through it
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing; spinal cord enters skull and swell slightly
thalamus
atop the brainstem; the switchboard;
cerebellum
little brain; learning and memory
Limbic System
fear and anger; motives for food and sex; consists of the amygdala, hypothalamus
Peripheral Nervous System
links CNS with receptors, muscles, and glands

subcategory=somatic and autonomic
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
controls the glands and muscles of internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System
arouses

ex-raises heart rate, blood pressure, slows digestion, raises blood sugar, cools by perspiration, making you ready for action

also involved with lying
Parasympathetic Nervous System
opposite of sympathetic - calms

lowers heartbeat, bloodsugar...
Nervous System
body's speedy electrochemical information network
Endocrine System
secretes chemical messengers known as hormones
Adrenal Glands
top of the kidneys

releases adrenaline/epinephrine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine to increase heart rate...etc
Pituitary Gland
pea sized structure under hypothalamus in core of the brain

releases hormones controlling growth
reticular formation
fingershaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus
brainstem
oldest and innermost region consisting of medulla and pons; its an extension of the spinal cord and ret. formation passes through it
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing; spinal cord enters skull and swell slightly
thalamus
atop the brainstem; the switchboard;
cerebellum
little brain; learning and memory
Limbic System
fear and anger; motives for food and sex; consists of the amygdala, hypothalamus
Peripheral Nervous System
links CNS with receptors, muscles, and glands

subcategory=somatic and autonomic
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
controls the glands and muscles of internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System
arouses

ex-raises heart rate, blood pressure, slows digestion, raises blood sugar, cools by perspiration, making you ready for action

also involved with lying
Parasympathetic Nervous System
opposite of sympathetic - calms

lowers heartbeat, bloodsugar...
Nervous System
body's speedy electrochemical information network
Endocrine System
secretes chemical messengers known as hormones
Adrenal Glands
top of the kidneys

releases adrenaline/epinephrine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine to increase heart rate...etc
Pituitary Gland
pea sized structure under hypothalamus in core of the brain

releases hormones controlling growth
reticular formation
fingershaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus
brainstem
oldest and innermost region consisting of medulla and pons; its an extension of the spinal cord and ret. formation passes through it
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing; spinal cord enters skull and swell slightly
thalamus
atop the brainstem; the switchboard;
cerebellum
little brain; learning and memory
Limbic System
fear and anger; motives for food and sex; consists of the amygdala, hypothalamus
amygdala
two lima bean-sized neural clusters which influence aggression and fear; removing amygdala causes a lack in agression and fear
hypothalamus
lies below the thalamus; regulates thirst, hunger, and body temp.
Franz Gall
tried to trace specific abilities to specific parts of the brain
phrenology
examining bumps on skull to reveal mental abilities and character traits
agonist
drug that enhances neurotransmitter activity; it can block reuptake or mimic the effects of neurotransmitter
antagonist
drug that impedes a neurotransmitter's activity; speeding reuptake or binding to receptor and blocking the transmitter
thyroid gland
regulates metabolism
pancreas
produces insulin and glucogen to regulate sugar levels
pons
help coordinate movement
geminal period
first 7-10 days
embryonic period
2nd - 8th week
fetal period
9th week - birth
fetus
at 9 week mark - looks human
six month point of fetus
organs developed enough to give fetus a chance of survival; responsive to sound
placenta
keeps harmful substance from reaching the embryo or fetus
Teratogens
harmful substances that can reach the embryo/fetus
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
consumption of alcohol during first 3 months; leading cause of mental retardation
Babinski Reflex
touching newborns foot will cause toes to curl up
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
four main stages of intellectual growth
sensorimotor stage
stage 1 - birth to 2yrs - take in world through sensory/motor interactions
preoperational stage
stage 2 - age 2-7 - learn to use language, too young for mental operations
egocentric
children interpret their own views
Theory of Mind
understanding that people are mental beings and can have beliefs different than their own
False Beliefs
dont understand different beliefs
concrete operational stage
stage 3 - 7-11 - develop ability to think logically, using general rules to guide thinking; able to comprehend mathematics
formal operational stage
12-adult - stage 4 - abstract hypothesis, morality, justice, place in world
flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
processing information into the memory system
working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory/bisual info. and of info. retrievedfrom long term memory
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
serial position effect
remembering the last and first items better than they do
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
for depression which disrupts memory for recent ep. but leaves most memory intact
long term potentiation (LTP)
increase in a synapses's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize faces
absolute threshhold
ability to recognize stimulus at least 50% of time
difference threshhold
ability to distinguish between two stimuli at least 50% of the time
Weber's law
to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by certain percentage
phi phenomenom
illusion of movement when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession