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35 Cards in this Set

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Freud's response to #1
- Result of id.
Freud's suggestion to #1
- Psychoanalysis.
develop ego and super-ego.
What is id?
- Unconscious drives with no logical thought.
- immediate satisfaction of desires to release organismic tension.
- sexual, aggressive.
- no knowledge of right or wrong.
What is ego?
- Developed between age 2 to 3 as natural development
- mediates between id and super-ego
- steers id through fostering tolerance of frustration, control of impulses, keeping organism safe.
What is super-ego?
- Moral voice, seed of conscience.
- Not innate.
- Governs what is right and wrong.
Skinner's response to #1
- Result of something witnessed in environment.
- Cause lies outside of individual.
- There is response to choking, and Matty likes the attention.
Skinner's suggestion to #1
- Operant conditioning
- Reward Casey on variable ratio schedule
- "I like it when you don't hurt the dog"
What is operant conditioning?
Shaping/maintaining particular behavior by its consequences. - reinforcers and punishments.
What is reinforcement?
- Presenting a reward.
- Enhances response.
What is punishment?
- Removal of stimulus.
- Decreases response.
What is a variable ratio schedule?
Rewarding on a non-regular schedule. Makes subject not know when reward is coming, but know it is coming.
What does the student feel in #2?
- A sense of non-existence and non-being
- More dead than alive
- No meaning, no purpose
May's response to #2
- Repressing the daimonic.
- More non-being than being.
- Experiencing psychopathy.
What is the daimonic?
- Reservoir of vital energy.
- Divine and diabolical.
- Feeling good, feeling bad.
Causes of psychopathy
three causes:
1. society - objectifies us with technological and bureaucratic systems. makes us lose subjectiveness
2. family - too dominating; shatters sense of being
3. individual - each person is responsible for expression of subjectiveness and autonomy
Bugental's response to #2
- dispiritedness
- depression from damage at juncture of willed intention and assertiveness within system of intentionality.
What is dispiritedness?
- Sadness
- difficulty in carrying out action
- avoidance of investment of action
- being an object instead of a subject
What is subjectivity?
having a say over your life instead of being an object
What is the system of intentionality?
- impulses become wishes
- wishes become wants - starts realm of what is possible
- wants become willed intentions - unconscious subjective action
- willed intentions become actions
- actions become actualized - showing intention in definitive form.
- actualization leads to interaction
What is Maslow's definition of self-actualization?
- mature, fully human person whose human potential has been realized and actualized
- large degree of commitment to something larger than or outside of themselves
What are the 5 characteristics of self-actualization?
1. more accurate perception of reality. not guided by expectations.
2. higher degree of self-acceptance, acceptance of others
3. higher degree of spontaneity, naturalness, vitality, creativity.
4. higher degree of autonomy: strong internal locus of control, not influenced by what people think
5. higher capacity for mutuality, intimacy and love.
Maslow's response to #3
- Problem of motivation.
- Internal.
- To be motivated to do anything higher, deficiency needs must first be met.
Skinner's response to #3
- Problem of motivation.
- External (free will is an explanatory fiction which non-behaviorists use to describe behaviors for which there is no understood cause)
- Because choosing to attend is choice, students lose notion of responsibility.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of human needs?
A set of deficiency needs that must be met in order for organism to be motivated to achieve higher needs
1. physiological needs
2. safety/security needs - freedom from chaos and fear
3. need for love
4. need for self-respect, self-esteem, and respect from others
Maslow's suggestion to #3
Set up sections where deficiency needs are met, e.g.:
- sections could be held later so students can sleep
- sections could provide food so students are not hungry or thirsty
Skinner's suggestion to #3
Reinforcement.
- e.g. point reward system. 5 extra credit points every time they come.
- furthermore: variable ratio schedule. 5 extra credit points every certain number of sections. proven to sustain behavior for longest period of time.
- or negative reinforcement: 10 points off after certain number of times.
What is Brewster-Smith's critique of self-actualization?
- self-actualized sample is biased. Maslow elminiated people with gross pathology and only included "exceptional speciments" - white males with high IQs, only one female
- definition of self-actualization is rooted in Maslow's own implicit values
- difficult to understand potentialities - how to measure?
- notion of self is ambiguous, hard to understand, too nebulous
- model is mechanical and linear - "if you meet all esteem needs, you can be self-actualized" when in fact it is impossible to be self-actualized
What is Maslow's response to Brewster-Smith?
Redefines self-actualization as full use and exploitation of one's talents and potentialities
Rogers' response to #5
- Michael is experiencing his own actualizing tendency - inherent motivational system is seen in Michael's need to attend school, learn, and grow.
- What he wants/needs is something else
- Regard for and need for approval from his parents has overridden his own organismic valuing process.
- Acting in ways to gain approval from others rather than to do well for himself.
- full potential does not involve becoming a doctor, it is part of self-concept.
- aspires to achieve ideal self.
- is moving away from his potential, and is moving toward dysfunctionality and rigidity.
Roger's suggestion to #5
- Michael should adhere to his organismic valuing process
What is the organismic valuing process?
Flexible process describing organism's knowledge of what it wants/needs from moment to moment.
What is the ideal self?
Person's sense of what they would ultimately like to become.
Maslow's response to #6
- While going up ladder, motivated by self-esteem or being respected
- Need for safety/security is not being met, therefore, cannot reach higher functions
Roger's response to #6
- Hypothesize that Ralph's ideal self differs from real self.
- Ideal self: adherence to sense of worth, being brave and courageous and getting love
- Real self: more aligned with organismic valuing process - fear of heights, don't go bungee jumping
Vector drawing for #6?
excitement and risk
moving upward - motivated by growth
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moving downward due to fear
safety, security.