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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Given the information in the above tables, imagine that a school system uses MOSAIC and identifies 100
students as being likely to become severely violent in school. They design and implement a program to
prevent violence in those students. None of the students goes on to be severely violent. The school district J
interprets this as evidence that combination of MOSAIC and their prevention program was highly effective.
Is this the most likely explanation for the fact that none of the students became violent? Why or why not? (3
Violence is rare, so it has a low base rate. In the presence of a low base rate and accordingly low positive predictive power, predictive accuracy will be low and a high rate of false positives will exist.
In the case of both table s (in question #1 and #2), what is the primary factor determining the level of Positive Predictive Power (PPP) of MOSAIC? Under what circumstances would we expect MOSAIC to have higher PPP? (3 pts.)
The primary factor determining MOSAIC’s PPP is the base rate of severe violence in the population. MOSAIC would have a higher PPP when the base rate is high
Illusory correlation
Identification of a relationship where none exists
Confirmatory bias
identifying something because of your preconceived expectation of finding it
Does training matter in terms of the validity of clinicians’ judgments? That is, is the training received in

clinical doctoral programs likely to improve the validity of clinicians’ judgments based on psychological

tests? Be sure to explain the evidentiary basis for your conclusion (5 pts.)
experienced clinicians are better at knowing what info to collect?
Consider Exner’s Comprehensive System for scoring and interpreting the Rorschach. Accepting for the sake of argument that the Comprehensive System permits derivation of reliable scores, recent evidence
indicates that there remains a serious problem that prevents such scores from being interpreted in an accurate manner. What is it? (5 pts.)
Rorscharach scores cannot be interpreted accurately because his norms are markedly incorrect. He initially duplicated some of the data, his “normative sample” included those who had sought psych care, and his ad-hoc explanation for the Roscharach’s findings of excessive psychopathology was a questionably “supernormal” sample
Can anatomically detailed—dolls be used in a fnarlner that is content with tie American Psychological Association’s Ethical Guidelines for psychological assessment? Why or why not? (5 pts.)
It should only be used for those things for which it has demonstrable validity, standardization, and reliability.
What is reliability and why must a psychological assessment instrument or technique possess it? Describe one way to assess the reliability of an assessment technique. (5 pts.)
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test that is judged reliable is also free of measurement error. Psych instruments need to error free because from this we can establish validity?

Forms of reliability: test/retest, internal consistency, equivalence, stability, and split half
What is validity and why must a psychological assessment instrument or technique possess it? Describe

One way to assess the validity of an assessment technique. (5 pts).
Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures what it is purported to measure. Psychological assessment techniques must be valid because psychologists need an objective way of gauging that an assessment technique is tapping into a construct of interest (and thereby serving its intended purpose). Many different forms of validity exit (content validity, concurrent validity, construct validity, and predictive validity). Concurrent validity is to see if your test correlates well with other well-established measures of the same construct.
What is overpathologizing bias and how was it illustrated by Dr. Dietz in the video?
Overpathologizing bias is the tendency to view most individuals from a conceptual framework that errs on the side of seing problems (even when none exist).
Explain why clinicians are likely to have difficulty learning from experience and use one or more examples from the Dietz video to illustrate why such learning is difficult.
Clinicians are likely to have difficulty learning from experience because few opportunities exist for immediate and unbiased feedback.
Facilitated communication permits some children with autism to communicate
not falsifiable
Thought field therapy (TFT) is NOT more effective
than placebo for treating PTSD.
Space aliens have not abducted people
People are being abducted by space alliens
not falsifiable
All swans are white
NOT all swans are white
not falsifiable
Thinking back to the first day of class, describe TWO distinct ways in which individual patients or society may be harmed, either directly or indirectly, when mental health professionals make use of assessment techniques and/or treatments which have not been tested adequately. (8 pts. — 4 pts. each)
. opportunity cost = pt loses time and money on a treatment that is not beneficial

2. people lose faith in the status as psych as a profession
What is incremental validity and how is it relevant to evaluating the value of the Rorschach as an assessment technique? (5 pts
Does the Rorschach add anything that can’t be obtained easier and more cheaply?
Drawing from lecture and the article by Garb and colleagues, explain and critique Bruno Klopfer’s principles of “Informal Validation” and “Intuitive Information Integration” regarding interpreting the meaning of Rorschach scores. (6 pts)
Informal validation is a concept which presumes that the informal judgement of experts alone is enough to gauge the degree to which a test measures what it is proported to measure. This principle assumes that validity can be assigned without the systematic analysis of equivalent forms reliablitiy, test/retest reliability, etc.
Intuitive info integration asssumes that the clinican can consider and assimilate vast quantities of info.
14. Walter Cook was developing a Teacher Attitude Inventory (TAI). He tested his measure on sample of teachers. In order to determine the accuracy of the TAI, Cook also ave the teachers the Scale of Teacher Attitudes (STA), which is a measure that has been shown to be a valid measure of teacher attitudes. When
compare to the teacher’ , found to produce very similar results . In other
words, e results of the new test converge well with the results of the existing test. From this, what can we conclude about the re iability and validity of the new test (i.e, the TAT)? Be sure to explain the basis for your conclusion. (5 pts.)
Because we are told that scores on the TAI are similar to those produced on the STA, we can assume that there is a fair degree of concurrent validity between the two. In other words, the TAI provides results equivalent to another established measure of the construct (the STA). Because a test which is valid can also be deemed reliable, for our TAI to have been considered valid, it must first have been judged reliable. Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.
Describe three distinct hallmarks of pseudoscience as described in lecture and in chapter 1 of the Lilienfeld et al. book. Be sure to clearly number each hallmark provide at least one example of each to make clear your understanding (12 pts. —4 pts. each
The mantra of holism = info associated with a topic cannot be considered in terms of its individual components but only as a unified whole

Ideological thinking= a feature of pseudoscience that involves the rigid defense of a principle despite all evidence to the contrary.

Absence of boundary conditions= a single procedure is limitlessly effective for almost any condition
Assume you want to summarize the results of 10 studies of the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral treatment program for agoraphobia and panic disorder (e.g., Barlow’s Panic Control Therapy). Each of the ten studies used a different measure of panic and agoraphobic symptoms, making it impossible to summarize the results of these studies without first getting all of the study results into the same units of measurement
a) How does the meta-analysis approach to summarizing such results accomplish this goal? (5 pts.)
Meta analysis transforms the study results into the same units of measurement by converting the distance between the treatment and control groups into standard deviation units ( a unit which is known as an effect size). In this way, the distance between the treatment and control distributions will be preserved.
Describe at least one way in which the meta-analysis approach is superior to the wins- losses/box score approach to getting all the studies into a common unit of measurement. (5 pts.)
The metaanalytic approach is superior to wins/losses because metanalysis preserves the size of the difference between the treatment and control conditions. Additionally, the meta-analytic approach accounts for differences based on sample size. Two studies could have the same degree of difference, but if one of them has a smaller sample size it will have less power.
Assume that your meta-analysis yields an effect size of 2.0 compared to Wait-list control conditions. What does that result mean? (5 pts
An effect size of 2 indicates that the average person in the treatment group did better than 98% of the people in the control condition
Robyn Dawes has said that a control group in an experiment is meant to provide a “hypothetical counterfactual.” What does he mean by that label? That is, what is a
control group meant to provide? (5 pts.)
A hypothetical counterfactual is intended to closely resemble the experimental group in all important ways- that is, the groups should be similar in all ways except for the variable of interest. A hypothetical counterfactual allows us to know what the treated group would have looked like had they NOT received our intervention
To provide a valid hypothetical counterfactual, a control group must be similar in all
ways that matter to the treatment group. Imagine that you have 1000 subjects to be
assigned to two groups. What is the best way to maximize the chance that the two groups
will be equal in all ways that matter? Would your answer be different if you have only
20 subjects? Why or why not? (5 pts.)
For such a large pool, it would be best to randomly assign our subjects to conditions. The larger the groups, the greater our chances that the groups will resemble each other. This is due to the fact that the larger the group of subjects from which we can draw, the larger the chance we have to resemble the desired equivalence. If we had a smaller number of subjects, it might be desireable to match our groups on at least the most important variables.
Provide two reasons that you cannot draw clear conclusions about causation based on correlational evidence (Note: clearly number your two reasons)
A. Correlation does not imply causation because of the third variable problem. Our control and experimental groups are different in more ways than one, so alternative explanations for changes in the experimental condition cannot be ruled out.
B. Another prob with interpreting correlational evidence is the problem of directionality. We can know that poverty is correlated with schizophrenia, for example, but we don’t know if the poverty caused the schiz or the schiz caused the poverty.
Imagine that you hypothesize that poverty causes schizophrenia. Under what circumstances would correlational evidence allow you to draw a clear conclusion about your hypothesis? (2 pts)
Correlational evidence would allow us to draw a clear conclusion about our hypothesis if there was NO correlation found. IF poverty is unrelated to schiz than there’s no chance of it causing schiz
What is the Dodo Bird’s verdict with regard to psychotherapy efficacy? For those who accept the Dodo verdict, what is seen as the primary source of the efficacy of psychotherapy regardless of the type? (5 pts.)
The Dodo Bird’s verdict ( all have won and all must have prizes) suggests that all forms of therapy are equally efficacious. Individuals who accept the verdict believe that psychotherapeutic efficacy comes from nonspecific factors that are common to all therapies including: the office as edifice, therapist as empathic expert, explanation of client’s prob, and therapeutic rituals
Describe the Boulder (i.e., scientist-practitioner) training model in clinical psychology
and summarize the rational for such a model. (5 pts.)
The first national training conference on clinical psychology, the
Boulder conference (Raimy, 1950), was a milestone for several
reasons. First, it established the PhD as the required degree, as in
other academic research fields. Second, the conference reinforced
the idea that the appropriate location for training was within
university departments, not separate schools or institutes as in
medicine. And third, clinical psychologists were to be trained as
scientist-practitioners for simultaneous existence in two worlds:
academic/scientific and clinical/professional.
Drawing on lecture and readings, describe at least one reason suggesting we should be (M concerned about the state of doctoral training programs in clinical psychology. (5 pts.)
Clinical PsyD programs accept more of their applicant pool (41 vs. 17)
~Fewer Psy D individuals get financial aid
~Fewer Psy D students are able to secure an APA approved internship
~PsyD graduates do not perform as well as PhD graduates on the national liscensing examination for psychologists.
List the cardinal principle of McFall ‘ s manifesto and the elements of his first corollary. (5 pts.)
1. The exact nature of the service must be described clearly.
2. The claimed benefits of the service must be stated explicitly.
3. These claimed benefits must be validated scientifically .
4. Possible negative side effects that might outweigh any benefits must be ruled out empirically
Ronald Levant argues that if we followed McFall’s manifesto, we would have to turn away most people who seek services because we would have no empirically supported treatment to offer them. Do you agree with him? Why or why not?
We have ESTS for the vast majority of axis I conditions
Describe at least two hallmarks of pseudoscience demonstrated by the manner in
which Francine Shapiro and others have promoted EMDR
Describe at least two hallmarks of pseudoscience demonstrated by the manner in
which Francine Shapiro and others have promoted EMDR. (5 pts)
~slippery definition of treatment fidelity, criteria to define competency change, suppression of debate, inappropriate citation, outlandishly high efficacy claims
Based on the current state of the evidence, should Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
be routinely offered to (or required of) first responders and victims who have experienced
a traumatic event? Why or why not? (5 pts.)
CISD should not be offered to first responders. In his study, Bisson discovered that CISD pts scored higher on a measure of PTSD related symptoms at follow up. Rose et al found no evidence that CISD conditions were any more helpful than controls.
The paper describing acupuncture as an effective treatment for depression was revealed in class to be flawed in a fundamental way. What was the flaw and why does it prevent the authors from concluding (as they did) that acupuncture’s efficacy in treating depression goes above and beyond the influence of nonspecific factors? (4 pts.)
There is not an adequate hypothetical counterfactual. Not all of Allen’s subjects were equally depressed at the start of treatment
Drawing on lecture and the handout provided, how effective are the various
approaches to treating depression (including drugs, CBT, and Interpersonal Therapy)
compared to placebo? (4 pts.)
Placebo helps 30-40, other approach assist roughly 50%
Wallach and Kirsch argue that studies of antidepressant ñiedications which used so- called “active placebos” (e.g., Lithium, Adinazolam, & Ljothyronine) suggest that much if not most of the effects of antidepressants are really due to expectancy. Do you agree with their conclusion? Why or why not? (4 pts.)
All of the above agents have antidepressant effects, so they can’t serve as placebos
Placebos: don’t have well maintained response, work more quickly than antidep (suggesting diff mechan of action), work best with mild to moderate depressives
Imagine that I do a study of my Attentional Retraining treatment for chronic worry by screening for Psych. 100 students who have extremely high scores on the Penn State
Worry Questionnaire. I treat these students and, on average, their worry scores decline substantially. Why is this a prime context in which to expect regression to the mean and
how would you rule it out (that is, control for it)? (4 pts.)
Regression to mean=extreme scores become less extreme over time.
How rule out? Need a no treatment/wait list control
Clinicians often argue thi actuarial or statistically derived formulae fbr’ffIaking
decisions are fine as far as they go, but they are not sensitive to many important factors
because those factors occur too rarely to be represented in the formula (e.g., the broken
leg problem). Such clinicians argue that, in contrast to the formula, a good clinical judge will recognize the importance of such factors and will, in such circumstances, make more accurate decisions than any formula — that is, they know to overrule the formula for such
exceptions and thus should be more accurate. Based on what you know about research
on clinical decision making, do you agree with this argument? Why or why not? (5 pts.)
1. Completely reliable
a) They never get tired or make a mistake.
2. They preserve only the predictive variables and ignore those that are not valid predictors.
a) Clinicians have trouble distinguishing those variables that are truly predictive from those that are not.
3. Clinicians tend to be more confident than they should be in their judgments:
a) This may be due to lack of outcome data in many cases so clinicians have trouble learning when they are wrong or right.
b) It may also stem from the skewed sample that clinicians see
. Many have argued that such studies misrepresent clinical judgment accuracy because they deny clinicians access to preferred information sources.
a) But, even when allowed to have more information than the formula uses (e.g., clinical interview results), the formula still does better.
(1)Goldberg formula based on the MMPI alone outperforms clinicians using both the MMPI and a clinical interview (Sawyer, 1966).
2. Many have argued that such studies use inexperienced clinicians.
a) But empirical comparison of inexperienced and
experienced clinicians fails to show any benefit of experience.
(1)An aside: more experienced clinicians are not more accurate in general, but they are more confident in the accuracy of their judgments.
3. Perhaps clinicians would do better than the formula when they notice rare events that are too rare to be included in the formula.
a) This is known as the “broken leg” problem:
(1)A formula might be very accurate at predicting a man’s weekly attendance of a movie, but, it will become invalid if the man breaks his leg.
Midterm Examination 2, Spring 2006
Imagine you are a guest on Oprah Winfrey’s show and you are appearing with Dr. Smith, who presents evidence for his new treatment for obsessive-compulsive hoarding (a problem getting much attention recently). Dr. Smith describes 3 cases in which each client dramatically reduced or eliminated such hoarding behavior following treatment. Dr. Smith states that these cases provide strong evidence that his program is an effective treatment for hoarding. You are then called upon to critique Dr. Smith’s conclusions. Describe at least 3 distinct reasons (NOTE: Do not include regression to the mean) that we cannot be confident in Dr. Smith’s conclusion that his treatment is effective. (12 pts)
(NOTE: Please number your 3 reasons)
Confirmatory bias
Cognitive dissonance
Hedged bets
Regression to the mean
Spontaneous remission