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149 Cards in this Set

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What were Berthold's conclusions with rooster experiment?
1: Testes can be transplanted
2: They can function and produce sperm
3:No specific nerves direct testicular function
4: testes make a secretory blood-borne product
Main guy for organizational/activational hypothesis. What was the experiment?
-William Young
-exposed pups prenatally to androgen and compared activational effects of maculinized female
- (follow up studies)castrasted males early and compared activational effects with normal males (castrated later).
3 criteria for behavior assessment
1: objective? can it actually be observed?
2: reliable?
3: valid?
4 methods of hormone level manipulation
1:Administering it
2: eliminating hormone-secreting cells
3: antagonist
4: genetic manipulation (knockout).
What is activated after protein hormone bind to receptor?
G protein
After G protein activation, increase/decrease in cAMP leads to what?
decrease: inhibit enzyme activity
increase: opp
What happens when there's too much hormone
receptor downregulation
what are tropic hormones?
hormones released by anterior pituitary
melatonin has receptors where?
retina, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary
Which nuclei is important for circadian rhythms?
SCN
Which nuclei is important for production of oxytocin?
PVN
Which nuclei is important for synthesis of vasopressin?
SON
4 RH
GnRH
CRH
TRH
GRH
6 tropic hormones
LH
FSH
TSH
Prolactin
GH
ACTH
Describe relationship between hypo and ant pit
1) RH from “neurosecretory” cells in hypo enters primary plexus of portal system
2) RH are carried down the pituitary stalk by the portal system
3)RH increase or decrease the release of ANT pit hormones into the general circulation
Describe relationship between hypo and post pit.
1: OT & VP are synthesized in the PVN and SON of the hypo
2: OT & VP are carried by axonal transport down the pituitary stalk
3: OT & VP are released into general circulation from neural endings in the POST pit
functions of thyroid gland
metabolism (including body temp regulation), reproduction, growth, differentiation
function of parathyroid hormone
calcium regulation
name 3 adrenal cortex zones, starting with outer one.
Zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis
androgens, glucorticoids, mineralcorticoids release from...
adrenal cortex
NA, AD, dopamine, enkephalins release from...
adrenal medulla
name effects from adrenal gland hormones (8)
1.Sodium retention in kidney
2.Increases carbohydrate 3.metabolism
4.Anti-stress hormone
5.Weak androgenic activity
6.Increases blood pressure
7.Replenish energy stores after stress
8.Analgesic effects (pian relief)
what hormones do the pancreas release? Which type of cell produces each?
insulin (beta), somatostatin (gamma), glocagon (alpha)
what is the overall function of the pancreas
blood glucose homeostasis
4 layers of of follicle cells
theca externa, theca interna, granulosa cells, liquor folliculi
mature follicle secretes ____ and mature corpus luteum secretes ____
estrogens, progestins
Lh causes theca interna to release ____ and FSH causes granulosa cells to ____ and secrete ___
androgens, convert androgesn to estrogens, progesterone
gametes in the testes come from:
sertoli cells
androgens in testes come form
leydig cells
What does LH do in the testes? What does FSH do in the testes?
What feedsback these processes?
-release of T which feeds back to brain
- same thing and spermatogenesis. Inhibin feeds back to brain.
what is ANP? What organ secretes it? What does it do?
-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
-heart
-Causes kidney to excrete sodium, controls blood volume and blood pressure
gastrin: What organ secretes it? What does it do?
-stomach
-secretes HCL
What 4 hormones does the gut (small intestine) secrete and what do they do?
-CCK (bladder contract, moves bile into small intestine)
-Motilin (moves food along "")
-Secretin (neutralizes stomach acid)
-GIP(stimulates secretion of insulin)
Erythropoietin
Cacitriol
What organ secretes them? What do they do?
-kidneys
-1st stimulates prod of red blood cells 2nd up uptake of calcium from SI
What group of hormones are derivative of tyrosine?
The protein hormones: catecholamines and thyroid hormones
The process by which an organism is originally set up to become either male or female.
sexual determination
The process during development through which an individual becomes either male or female.
sexual differentiation
What is the protein product in the SRY gene?
TESTES DETERMINATION FACTOR
undifferentiated gonad called?
germinal ridge
What role does testes play in development of internal genitalia? ovaries?

hint: ducts
-testes: secretes mullerian inhibitory hormone and T needed for Wolffian development.
-ovaries = nothing
In the sexually indifferent stage: what does the genital tubercle develop into? urethral folds? Labioscrotul swelling?
-clit/penis head
-labia minora/shaft
-labia majora/scrotum
What is needed for development of male external genitalia?
DHT
what is α-fetoprotein
what binds to estrogen in developing females so it won't masculinize her.
What were the 4 conclusions of the WNT-4 (signaling molecule) exp?
-w/out Mullerian duct does not develop
-instead wolffian duct develops
-w/out it ovaries release T
-
Name 4 sex differentiation diseases. What happens in each?
-Turner's syndrome (fail to make steroids)
-CAH (high pre-natal androgen exposure)
-AIS (defective receotors)
-5 alpha reductase deficiency (cannot convert T into DHT
normal external genitalia at birth, sexed as females, malformed ovaries, no secondary sex characteristics, slow growth, sterile
Turner's syndrome
from mother (on X chromosome), regular development of testes, regular secretion of T, sterile, raised and look like females.
AIS
androgen produces high levels of androgens instead of cortisol, enlarged adrenal cortex, treated with life-long cortisol treatment
CHA
Gonadal steroids interact with (or activate) fully developed brain structures to shape behavior. The brain is NOT changed here, but the way it controls behavior is.
activational effects
CNS development is influenced by gonadal steroids. This hormonal influence has a lasting effect on male and female brain organization and, hence, behavior.
organizational effects
Name 3 charactersitics of 2m females.
Interfemale aggression
Less attractive to males
Longer ovarian cycles
A chemical that when absorbed into the body either mimics or blocks hormones and disrupts the body's normal functions.
endocrine disruptor
-failure to prevent miscarriages
-health problems for many of these women's children.
1971, doctors report high rates of unusual vaginal cancers in teenage girls, traced to mothers' use of DES.
-The girls also suffered birth defects of the uterus and ovaries, and immune system suppression.
what caused all did?
DES-synthetic estrogen given to mothers to prevent miscarriages in the 50's and 60's.
alligators:
Penis = 25% smaller
Testosterone = 70% less (but not coorelated to penis size)

Population decline

Strange structures seminiferous tubules

What is going on????
Teeny weenies! Possibly linked to synthetic estrogens (Florida).
what's happened to men over the years?
% of men with normal sperm decrease, testicular mass decrease, seminiferous tubule mass decrease
95% of Americans sampled have this neuroendocrine disruptor in their bodies. Rats exposed to it were more susceptible to cancer-causing chemicals as adults.
Bisphenol A
what two pathways are important in the zebra finch for song?
efferent motor pathway
auditory trasnmission pathway (learning)
what are the three Sexually dimorphic regions in bird species that sing?
Area X, RA, HVc
Female zebra finch will only sing like male if...as opposed to early exposure to...___ and combination of ___ late exposure
-early exposure to estrogen and later activation with T/DHT
-DHT
-no exposure
3 Ways Hormones Influence Sexual Differentiation of Brain
Prevent cell death in specific brain regions (SDN-POA), Promote outgrowth of dendrites and axons of specific neurons (AVPV), Target-derived neurotrophic function (SNB).
What was soc ontroversial about LeVay's experiment?
Claimed nature effect for homosexuality: gays had smaller volumes of INAH3 nuclei
Sexually dimorphic regions in brain (4)
-SDN-POA (men bigger)
-AVPV (denser in dentrinic branches and more dopamine neurons)
-arcuate nucleus (projected heavier from AVPV and more synapses in females)
-spinal nuclues...(SNB)/Onuf nuclues in humans (not in females: T keeps it alive through stimulation).
Play behavior among rhesus monkeys: organizational/activational effect?
organizational and environment important
_____ has more androgen activity. T improves memory in men.
hippo
differences between brain halfs' weight in men and women
different between left and right more pronounced in men.
Epididymis? where?
long tube, storage duct for sperm (6 wks)
-on top of testes
Vas deferens? where?
tube, transports sperm
(travels from testes up yto where the bladder is
Prostate gland? where?
milky fluid, major portion of semen (below bladder...big round thing)
Seminal vesicle? where?
contents contribute to ejaculate (jalapeno thing next to bladder
What is needed for erections and what is dependent on? what does it do?
NO, DHT (at 40 DHT levels start to decline),vasodilator & increases mitochondrial respiration
NO part of the production of what which leads to the relaxation needed for erection? How does viagra help this process?
cGMP, prevents cGMP from converting into PDE5
6-ways to quantify male sexual behavior.
-amount of time the male spends sniffing female’s odors (chemoinvestigation)
-mount latency
-number of mounts
-number of intromissions
-ejaculation latency
-Post-ejaculatory interval
What conclusions can be drawn about the role of E and T in male sexual performance? motivation?
Testosterone is important both for sexual motivation (i.e., wanting to mate) and performance (i.e., being able to mate). Estrogen (converted from testosterone) is crucial for maintaining/restoring mating ability (performance), but only if combined with testosterone.
what accounts for different sex drives in rats?
estrogen receptors
4 main areas activated by sexual activity
accessory olfactory bulb, MPOA, nucleus accumbens, medial nucleus of the amygdala
Evidence for a Key Role of the MPOA in Male Sexual Behavior (4)
lesioning, implant studies, electrical stimulation, gene expression studies (shows activation of fod genes strongly after mating)
MPOA involved with what aspect of male sexual behavior? if you lesion it what restored it?
consumatory, dopamine
what happen to dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens during consumatory behavior
rises
what aspect is is amygadal involved with in male sexual behavior?
appetitive
what's the conclusion between dopamine, amygdala, MPOA?
the amygdala increases dopamine release in the mPOA during appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior
_____ receptor agonists restore sexual behavior in amygdalar-lesioned rats
dopamine
where is serotonin released?
Raphe nuclei in the brain stem
serotonin released in the ___ of the hypo typically ___ sexual behavior.
LHA, inhibits (esp released during post ejaculatory stage)
Dopamine levels in the ____ (reward circuit) are altered with _____ infusion into the LHA
nucleus accumbens, serotonin
Three potential roles for nitric oxide in regulating male sexual behavior
facilitates dopamine release, activates HPG axis, negative feedback (inhibits aromatase release...estrogens release domapine remember).
Evidence for stimulatory effects of opioids
1. naloxone blocks re-initiation of sex after sexual exhaustion
2. Opioids activate DA neurons in midbrain
3. enhances orientation of male towards female rat.
Evidence for inhibitory effects of opioids
1. Endorphin activity in POA inhibitd consummatory aspects of male sex including erection
2. Naloxone in POA enhances ejaculatory performance
3. Long-term opiate use suppresses LH secretion, reduction in testosterone
3 components of female sexual behavior
Attractivity
Proceptivity
Receptivity
A Measure of Attractivity (actal method/exp)
The Three-Chamber Preference Test
a measure of proceptivity (actual method/exp)
can be measured using a choice-arena
what is lordosis quotient
# lordosis/ #mounts* 100
what restores complete normal sexual beahavior in rats
E+P
Sex Differences in Preferred Inter-Intromission Intervals...what do they each care about?
male: shorter intervals, ejaculation
female:longer intervals, sperm transport, progestational state.
how exactly does pacing ensure better results.enought stimulation:
prolactin released from ant pit, then maintains corpus luteum which secretes P which helps egg implant.
TERMINATION OF RECEPTIVITY
w/out sex
w/sex
w/paced sex
-18-20 hrs
-terminates sooner
-terminates fastest.
endometrium
lining of the uterus
Overview of Circuitry Involved in Lordosis
POA (inhibits).
VMN-->midbrain central grey--> medullary reticular formation(lower brain stem)-->spine neurons
role of hypo, midbrain central grey, mudullaru reticular formation, and spine in lordosis
1. Responds to hormones, peptides, receptors & hormones are produced
2. Transforms and relays hypothalamic signaling to reticular formation
3. Integrates postural information, vestibular and proprioception
4. Receives sensory stimulation, then generates motor response
how is lordosis allowed to occur when hypo normally inhibits VMN?
entrogen causes disinhibition
Evidence for a crucial role of the VMN in female sexual behavior (3)
- Lesions of the VMN reduce lordosis
-In ovariectomized female rats, estrogen implants into the VMN reinstate female sexual receptivity (weak)
-Estrogen AND progesterone into VMN of OVX rats = normal sexual behavior
Estrogen implant in VMN= lordosis? proceptivity?
Progesterone implant in VMN of estrogen primed rats: proceptivity?
VNAB (ventral noradrenergic bundle) lesions= lordosis? proceptivity?
-yes , no
-yes
-no, yes
Lordosis does not occur in
---- receptor knockout mice
P
-LH facilitates CL
-CL produces prog (too)
-Prog inhibits sex behav.
what phase is this? follicle?
estrus, none...primary corpus luteum
-begin follicular phase estrogen levels rise
-LH and FSH stimulate follicular development
What phase is this? follicle?
Diestrus, primary and seocndary follicle
follicle secretes high levels of estrogen and progesterone
-causes GnRH pulse
-GnRH causes LH surge
= behavioral estrous
What phase is this?
proestrus, graafian follicle
describe 5 stages of the human menstrual cycle.
-1.Primary follicle formation = primary oocyte + follicle cells-Follicle cells enlarge (FSH stimulates follicle growth)
-2.Secondary fol. Fluid-filled cavity
-3. Tertiary (Graffian follicle),central chamber (antrum) appears
-4.Primary oocyte matures to 2ndary oocyte, ovulation (LH surge).
5. Formation of the CL follicle cells collapse form CL
Criteria for an adiposity (satiety) signal (5)...which two fill the criteria?
1.Circulates at levels proportional to fat stores
2. Enter brain in proportion to the [plasma]
3. Receptors in “energy related” brain areas
4. Admin. directly into brain = stop eating
5. Loss = overeating (KO, lesion, antagonist)
-leptin and insulin.
leptin secreted by...
brain receotors in...
fat cells
hypo: arcuate nucleus
Metabolic interactions and the well-fed state (6)
1. food broken down into glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids in gut
2. insulin released
3. glucose stored
4. glucose powers brain
5. powers muscle and some stored there.
6. excess glucose stored in adipose tissue, leptin released.
Functions of insulin
aa -> ketone bodies
Prevents glycogenolysis
glycogen from glucose
Metabolic interactions and the fasting state (5)
1. glucagon released
2. glycogen, amino acids, glycerol converted into glucose.
3. glucose and ketones power brain
4. ketone and free fattyc acid fuel muscles
5. lypolysis in adipose tissue, leptin secretion inhibited
GET GLUCOSE TO THE BRAIN: (4)
1.Glycogenolysis
Glycogen -> glucose
2.Lipolysis
Fats -> FA & glycerol
3.Activation of SYM NS = lipolysis
4.Gluconeogenesis
aa -> glucose
under extreme deprivation what 3 hormones produced/neuros.
NE, Cort, GH
CNY signals that increase food intake
NYP
MCH
AgRP
proof that NYP increased food intake (2) and problem (1)
1. NPY into the hypo potently increases food intake
2.disruption of NPY genes reduces hyperphagia in obese mice
problem: NPY KO completely normal
AgRP...where is it secreted?its effects?
1.proof that NYP increased food intake
2.Obesity = when agouti protein is overexpressed in the brain
3.Neurons that secrete NPY also secrete AgRP
4 things about FSH (proof of how it works, what it does, where it's secreted, asociated with what other parts of the brain?)
1.Increases food intake and reduces metabolic rate
2. MCH directly into the brain evokes feeding
3. MCH cell bodies = LHA
4. Form synapses with several structures involved in motivational processes...axons from NYP.AgRP neurons reach here.
Signals that DECREASE food intake in CNS and Peripheral
-melanacortins, CRH, TRH, CART
-insulin, CCK, Leptin
alpha-MSH has two receptors...
which one's absence causes obesite in mice and humans
where is alpha-MSH secreted
MC3, MC4
MC4
arcuate nucleus
Key hypothalamic areas implicated in adiposity signaling and regulation of food intake
Arcuate nucleus = first order (target) neurons, PVN & PFA = second order (effector) neurons
Candidates for the second order neurons in the hypothalamic response to adiposity signaling
TRH, CRH, Oxytocin supporess eating...Orexin and MCH stimulate eating
Evidence for importance of endogenous factors: (3)
1.Animals in spacecraft maintain biological rhythms
2.Animals held in adjacent cages, without exposure to any exogenous factors, differ in their biological rhythms
3.Biological rhythm of one animal can be transferred to another animal through tissue transplants.
How Can Endogenous Rhythms be Demonstrated?
1.measure behavior(wheel running)
2.Generate a timeline of the behavior
3.Generate an actogram
4.Tinker with the light cycle and observe effects on circadian rhythms
Photoperiodism
the use of daylength to time annual cycles
Evidence for a Crucial Role of the SCN in Biological Rhythms (3)
1. SCN lesion disrupts all rhythms
2. Severing SCN connections to other brain structures leaves an “island” of SCN activity, but abolishes rhythms in disconnected structures
3. SCN removal  transplantation studies show that SCN reinstates rhythmicity OF DONOR.
Behaviors/Brain regions that are influenced by SCN (4)
Feeding
Reproduction
EnDay length/ seasonality
ergy availability
How does the SCN control ovarian cycle (what does it to and how)?
--responsible for precise timing of LH surge. Lesion there = no ovarian cycle.
--Direct connection between SCN and GnHR cell bodies in preoptic area
Long day breeders
Short-day breeders
1.Mate in spring rear in summer
2.Mate in autumn Gestate in winter. Rear in summer
Hans Selye
founder of modern stress research
General adaptation syndrome (GAS)-Hans Selye
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
3 main points of resistance phase:
1. mobilization of remianing energy reserves and conservation of glucose released (GH, Cort)
2.Elevation of blood glucose concentration (cort, and glucagon)
3. conservation of salts and waters, loss of k+ and H+ (mineralcorticoids).
Systems Inhibited By Stress
(4)
1. Parasympathetic nervous system
2.hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
3.insulin secretion
4.Growth hormone release
Key organs of the immune response (4)
Lymph nodes
Thymus
Spleen
Bone marrow
Participates in negative
Feedback for stress response
Inhibits HPA axis.
hippo
prood of stress impairing hippo (3)
1. Patients with PTSD have hippo atrophy and deficits in recall tasks.
2.Administration of cortisol to humans impairs verbal declarative memory
3.People dignosed with depression and hypercortisolaemia show hippo-dependent memory impairments
How is memory studied in the lab? (2)
The Morris Water Maze, The 8-arm Radial Maze
...can see impaired spatial memory and object recognition deficits.
Stress ______ memory and dendritic morphology in the _______
inhibits, hippo
stress increases ___ release in hippo which results in excitotoxicity via ____ levels
glutomate, glucocorticoid
Factors Influencing Responses to Stress
control, predictability, social support, genetic make-up/personality
Moyer: classification of aggression (7-3T)
Maternal, Predatory, learned- and irrtiable, fear-induced, territorila, inter-male, sex- and rank related.
Some methods used to evaluate aggression (7)
muricide (mouse-killing)
shock-elicited fighting
isolation-induced aggression
resident-intruder aggression
maternal aggression
brain-stimulation
dominance-related behaviours in primates
Evidence that androgens mediate aggressive behavior (4)
1. puberty
2. seasons changes
3. males more than females
4. no more with castration
Steroid hormones effect social status in male red-deer in 2 ways
direct in brain and antlers
The Challenge Hypothesis John Wingfield...talk about bird experiments
Plasma T levels and aggressive behavior are positively correlated during periods of social instability or challenge...when no then no...birds had increased T after behavior..so T did not cause behavior
Brain circuits for affective attack in Syrian Hamsters (activity high where?)(4)
Medial Amygdala
Stria terminalis
Hypothalamus
PAG- midbrain
ER alpha knockouts did what to aggression? soy diet
hardly any, increased it
Evidence that serotonin is involved in the regulation of aggressive behavior - mice (3)
1.After prolonged isolation, mice become aggressive and serotonin levels decrease

2. The lower the serotonin concentration the higher the defensive aggressive response to foot shock.

3. Mice lacking serotonin receptors attacked an intruder more quickly and intensely than normal mice
Blocking ___ receptors inhibits aggression in hamsters
AVP
Four different levels of analysis
immediate causation, development, evolution, and adaptive function.