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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nature vs. nurture
to which degree or hereditary influences (nature) and experiential or enviromental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are.

twin studies identical vs. faternal genes
continuity vs. discontinuity
whether a particular development phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts
life experiences
universal vs. context-specific
concerns whether there is just a one path of development of several

cultural influences
biological forces
genetics and health related factors that affect human development
psychological forces
allinterbal perceptual, cognitive ,emotional, and personality factors that affect development

temporment... how you were born
sociocultural forces
interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect development

your culture relatsionships attitude
life-cycle forces
reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages.
an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
psychodynamic theories
propose that human behavior is largely governed by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious.
psychosocial theory
who invented?
proposed that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands. (personality develops in stages)
Behavioralism Theory
who invented?
Enviroment controls behavior
Information Processing
thought develpos by increases in effeciency at handeling information
operant conditioning
consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
observational learning
people learn from watching those around them.
social cognitive theory... who?
complex view of reward, punishment, imitation.... peoples beliefs in their talents and their abilities
naturalistic observation
people observed in their own enviroment spontaneously
structured observation
researcher creates a setting that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interests
does it provice accuarte results?
is it a constant measure?
longitudinal study
the same people tested over long period of time

disadvantages- cost, people lose interest
cross sectional study
testing of people that are different ages but at the same time
advantages- time effective, cheap
dis-cant study stability of behavior, cohort effect
cohort effect
differences between ages groups and the events in their enviroment
sequential designs
both cross sectional and longitudinal... multiple groups of people are tested over multiple periods of time
dis-expensive, time
monozygotic twins
identical twins because they come from one fertilized egg that split into two

differences in enviroment cause genetics are identical
dizygotic twins
fraterbal twins come from two seperate eggs fertizled by two different sperm

same enviroment but different genetics
the process of deliberatly seeking enviroments that fit one's heredity
weeks 1-2
moves to uterus
weeks 3-8
body structures, organs, amnotic sac fills with fluid
weeks 9-birth(38)
beginning 3 layers
ectoderm- skin, hair and nervous system
mesoderm- muscles, bones, circulatory
endoderm- digestive system, lungs
thick greasy substance that protects baby in the amniotic fluid
tertogenic diseases
aids, herpes, syphilis
a needle is inserted to take sample of amniontic fluid to make sure its cool
chorionic villus sampling
sample obtained from the placenta
Birth Stage 1
contractions enlargement of cervix to 10cm
brith stage 2
passes through cervix and enters the vagina
birth stage 3
afterbirth of the placenta
babys head
babinski reflex
rub bottom of foot and toes will fan out- shows good signs for the nervous system
moro reflex
falling throws arms out and pulls them back in
rooting reflex
rub face and face will turn in that direction
assessing the baby.... heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflexes, skin tone 7 good, 4-6 needs help
neonatal behavioral assessment scale...
includes 28 behavorial items
assess infants autonomis, motor, state, social systems
brain shows flexability in development involves distinct demands may affect organization and mapping
left hemishere
right hemishere
non verbal communication
body language, music, space
frontal cortex
goal directed behavior and emotional response
corpus collasum
connects bands of fibers connecting both halves
developed right away
6 months can distinguish pitches like adults
7 months infants can locate object making the noise
self concept
9 month old sees themselves in the mirror but doens't know it to be them
15-24 months realize it to be themselves
theory of mind
age 2 - understand desires and behavoir
age 3 - distinguish between mental and physical world
age 4- understand behavor is based on beliefs
correlational studies
measures relationship between variables occuring naturally
correlation coeffecient
r meauses strength
doesnt prove causation
chromosomes in egg and sperm
23 egg + 23 sperm = 46 new baby
22 autosomes
23rd pair chooses sex of baby
46 chromosomes contain 30.000 genes
the pair from mom and dad together
behavorial genetics
the study of inheritance or behavioral and psychological traits
infants behavoir- effected by enviroment and genetics
dimensions of temperament
1. activity level- motor activity
2. positive affect- pleasure, enthusiasm, contentment
3. persistence- amount of resistance to distraction
4. inhibition-shyness
5. negative affect- irrability
90% prefer right hand use