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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Treiman's feature integration theory (both have glasses)
Damage to downstream of V1. Most likely, the inferior parietal cortex (important for spatial attention)
encoding
Left PFC
Retreival
Right PFC
Episodic
Frontal Lobe
Semantic
Lateral Temporal Cortex
Priming (Elephant in static)
Perceptual Representation System-Left frontal cortex)
Skills/Habits
basal ganglia/cerebellum; Procedural Memory
Medial temporal lobe
(forms)
hippocampus
(consolidates)
Korsakoff’s syndrome (patient NA) amnesia)
Dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
Mammilary bodies of hypothalamus
Parkinsons positive
(resting tremors; rigidity)
Parkinsons negative symptoms
posture, locomotion, hypokinesia, bradykinesia)
(goal focused; make money)
DLPFC
Areas involved in general sensation (Coke vs. Pepsi study)
(VMPFC reward path)
brand-related processing (Coke vs. Pepsi study)
(Bilateral Hippocampus; Dorsolateral PFC)
“high-road” to the amygdala
slow + sure: thalamus-sensory cortex for finer analysis-amygdala)
“low-road” to the amygdala
(quick + dirty; responding to threat: thalamus/limited analysis-amygdala; bypass V1, ventral stream)
OCD
increased metabolic rates in orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate, and caudate nuclei
treatment of depression and anxiety disorders like OCD
SSRI’s like Prozac
surgery=stereotaxic cingulotomy lesions cingulate cortex.
Schizophrenia symptoms
positive (hallucinations, delusions, and excited motor behavior)
negative symptoms (slow and impoverished though and speech, emotional social withdrawal, blunted affect=expression)?
Schizphrenic abnormalities
hippocampus and amygdala are smaller
ventricular enlargement
hypofrontality (underactivation of the frontal lobes)
Phonemes
(smallest functioning unit of sound; cap v. tap)
Graphemes
smallest functioning unit of written language; letters)
Morphemes
(smallest meaningful unit of language (sign/signing)
Lemma level
(grammatical: noun, verb, male, female)
Lexical level
(phonological=through/threw; orthographic=threw/slew) (lexical selection=appropriate word for situation)
orthographic
threw/slew) (lexical selection=appropriate word for situation)
semantic:
threw-toss).
Broca's aphasia
(anterior non fluent aphasia)
Wernicke's aphasia
(posterior fluent aphasia
paraphasias
(plashing/splashing)
Accumulation
(fish turn blue, white belly)
more sexual territory)
(better spatial skills=bigger hippocampi
What types of memory are most affected by normal aging?
Sustaining attention
Inhibition
WM Maintaining and manipulating
Encoding/ retrieving episodic memory
Medial Temporal Lobe
Forms/ consolidates new episodic and semantic memories
Temporal Cortex
Stores episodic/semantic knowledge
Assoc. sensory Cortex
Perceptual priming
Arcuate fasciculus
Axons connect posterior temporal (Wernickes) with frontal (Brocas)
Transmit language info between
Extrapyramidal tracts
Maintaining posture and balance.
Deafferented
Signals from limb don’t reach CNS
Severed dorsal root of spinal cord
Huntingtons disease
Atrophy of the striatum (caudate and putamen)
Clumsiness and involuntary head/trunk movements
Cortico spinal tract
Originate in the primary motor cortex
Parkinsons disease
Loss of dopeminergic cells in substantia nigra (of basal ganglia)
Difficulty in initiating/slow movement, poor speech, resting tremors
Bradykinesia
Slowness movement initiation and execution
Hemiplegia
Loss of voluntary movements on one side of the body.
Damage to the cortico spinal tract
Premotor cortex
Forthcoming movement.
Supplementary motor area
Well learned movement production
Apraxia
Loss of skilled or purposeful movement
Cerebral Cortex lesion (left)
Ideomotor apraxia
Hard to execute action
Know how but can’t do
Ideational apraxia
Impaired intent of an action
Don’t know how to use tool
Central Executive
Dorsolateral PFC
LPFC lesions (attention to tones)
no attention for both contralesional + ipsilesional tones
Stimulation when generating similar word
Left interior frontal gyrus
Can’t generate verb when too many choices
Left inferior frontal cortex
Activates left temporal lobe (maybe LTM storage for semantic
Anterior cingulated
Found in the inferior prefrontal cortex
ACC=difficult task & novel condition (no need for SAS)


ACC works with PFC to monitor operation of system
(damaged in Gage)
Orbitofrontal cortex: Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Social/ emotional decision making, processing, evaluation, filtering/inhibition
Orbitofrontal cortex:
Lateral-orbital prefromtal cortex.
Spiral ganglion-
Cochlear nerve
Superior olivary nuclei (binaural input)
Inferior colliculus
Medial geniculate nucleus
Auditory cortex
Akinetopsia
Bilateral MT lesions
Achromatopsia
Inferior temporal V4/V8 lesions
Visual form agnosia
V1 inferior temporal cortex (ventral stream)
Optic Ataxia (Patient R.V.)
Impaired action perception (reading, grasping, eye movements)
Dorsal stream in posterior parietal cortex damage
superior longitudinal fasciculus
Dorsal Route
“Where” action
Superior longitudinal fasciculus (bundle of fibers)
40% respond to the fovea
60% respond to periphery (excluding fovea)
Ventral Route
“What” identification
Inferior longitudinal fasciculas
But less specific about location
Receptive fields always encompass the fovea
Association Agnosia
Can’t recognize
Downstream visual ventral pathway damage
Prosopagnosia
Generally right hemisphere; possible configuration reliance
Superior temporal Sulcus respond specifically to faces
Fusiformface area (FFA)
fusiform cortex right hemisphere (ventral stream)
(goal based; top down)
Dorsolateral PFC, ACC
perceptual; bottom up)
Occipital, parietal, and temporal (
Brocas area=
ventrolateral PFC
Retrograde Tracer
To find axon origination
The absolute refractory period:
Falling Phase
Na+ channels closed and inactivated
Temporal coding:
How many AP’s
Acetylcholine
Makes mouth muscles contract as you smile
Temporal Resolution:
Single-unit recording = ERP = MEG > TMS > fMRI > PET > reversible induced lesions > chronic human lesions
Spatial Resolution:
Single-unit recording > reversible induced lesions > fMRI > PET = TMS > chronic human lesions > MEG > ERP.
Optic Radiations
LGN to V1 and whose axons course through the temporal and parietal lobes?
Blindsight damage
Primary visual cortex (V1) or the optic radiations (axons connecting the LGN to V1)
a) Blindsight represents functioning of the intact (not damaged) retino-collicular
pathway.
b) There are “islands of preserved cortical function” that support detection of the
stimulus.
Damage optic ataxia
Damage to the superior longitudinal fasciculus causes this disorder,
92%
Visual form agnosia is associated with damage to which area?
c: LO 81%
Right Inferior Posterior Parietal Lobe
damage.
Ipsilateral Cue/Ipsilateral Target fastest
d) Ipsilateral Cue/Contralateral Target slowest difficulty disengaging attention
Question 1: A digit-span task :
b: Left Ventrolateral
Question 2: Mental rotation of imagined objects:
c: Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Question 3: Mental arithmetic of a sequence of numbers that are being spoken to you
a: Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex 50%
A 3-back task that involved matching spatial positions of a dot on the
computer screen
c: Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex 50%
Question 5: A task requiring you to respond every time your face was shown
during a sequence of different faces
d: Right Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex 42%
Question 1: A loud explosion occurs in the corner of your room, and you quickly
turn your head to see what it is. You have just demonstrated:
d: exogenous overt orienting 82%
Which of these structures is more involved when you are first learning to serve a tennis ball as compared to when you have had extensive practice?
b: Cerebellum 56%
Which is these structures is more involved when you are imagining your tennis serve as opposed to
actually swinging the racket?
d: Supplementary motor area (SMA) 82%
This region modulates motor activity by resolving competition between possible movements, thereby
gating only selected movements to action.
c: Basal Ganglia 79%
PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is thought to be due in part to problems with fear conditioning. Which of the following statements about PTSD is FALSE:
d: Drugs that block LTP might be useful in this disorder because they
increase the likelihood that new associations will be learned and replace the
older associations that are causing the PTSD.
45%