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43 Cards in this Set

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a state wherein a person feels as strong sense of dread, frequently accompanied by physical symptoms of increased heart rate, respiratory rate, elevated blood pressure (autonomic nervous system) without having a specific source or reason for the emotions
• ANXIETY
ANXIETY IS PATHOLOGICAL IF:
(4) things
• The response is greatly disproportionate to the risk and severity of the danger threat.
ANXIETY IS PATHOLOGICAL IF:
(4) things
• The response continues beyond the existence of a potential danger or threat.
ANXIETY IS PATHOLOGICAL IF:
(4) things
• Intellectual, social, or occupational functioning is impaired.
ANXIETY IS PATHOLOGICAL IF:
(4) things
• The individual suffers from a psychosomatic effect. (colitis,dermatitis
: behavioral or psychological retreat from anxiety-provoking experiences
 Withdrawal:
discharge of anxiety through aggressive behaviors
 Acting out:
visceral or physiological expression of anxiety
 Psychosomatization:
management of anxiety-laded experiences through evasive behaviors
 Avoidance:
using anxiety in the service of learning adaptive behavior
 Problem solving
LEVELS OF ANXIETY:
–Increased motivation
–Sharpens the senses
–Learning is enhanced
LEVEL ONE
 Mild Anxiety
LEVELS OF ANXIETY:
–Perceptual field diminishes
–Attention span decreases
–Needs help with problem solving
•Diaphoresis, tremors, muscle tension
LEVEL TWO
 Moderate Anxiety:
LEVELS OF ANXIETY:
–Can focus on only one detail
–Severely limited attn. span
–Physical symptoms common
LEVEL THREE
 Severe Anxiety
LEVELS OF ANXIETY:
–Behavior aimed @ relief of anxiety
•Tacycardia, dilated pupils, hyperventilation.
•Stay with person in panic: Safety, tunnel vision can’t make decisions for themselves
LEVEL THREE
 Severe Anxiety
LEVELS OF ANXIETY:
–Unable to focus on any detail
–Misperception of environment (delusion & hallucinations)
LEVEL FOUR
 Panic Anxiety
Level of Anxiety:
–Fear of dying or going insane
–Prolonged episode leads to physical and emotional exhaustion
•Tunnel vision, not able to make decisions, stay with them
LEVEL FOUR
 Panic Anxiety
Phobic disorder, Agoraphobia
Symptoms include:
Intense anxiety,Acute anxiety in crowds,Fear of losing control,Fear of inability to escape or
Phobic disorder, Agoraphobia
Symptoms include: (cont)
find secure place,Avoiding situations, Fear of being alone
persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. The individual fears that he or she will act in a way that will be humiliating
• Social Phobia
• Treatment:
• SSRI : Paxil
marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation, such as animals, insects, heights, flying or seeing blood
• Specific Phobias:
• Characterized by excessive anxiety and worry that occurs more days than not, for at least 6 months.
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
• Symptoms: restlessness or feeling on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulties with concentration, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder
recent and unexpected panic attacks are present, a at least one of the attacks has been followed for 1 or more months by persistent concern about having additional attacks
• Panic disorder
• Symptoms: Palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness or breath, choking sensation, chest pain, fear of loosing control, fear of dying, altered sense of reality.
Panic disorder: SSRI’s, Zoloft
TCA’s, Benzodiazepines, Clonazepam, Anticonvulsants,Beta Blockers
• They are sudden, spontaneous episodes accompanied by symptoms such as a racing heart or palpitation, dizziness, dyspnea, and feeling that death is imminent.
• Panic attack:• Treatment: SSRI, Paxil
recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced at some time during the disturbance as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety or distress.
• Obsessions:
repetitive behaviors that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession.
• Compulsions
Symptoms:Obsessive recurrent, intrusive thoughts untrollable compulsive impulses or actions recognition of unreasonable nature of thoughts and behaviors
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD):

Treatment:SSRI,TCA
Sx: Recurrent, intrusive recollections and memories, dreams,Nightmares,Flashbacks,
relives” traumatic experience
Anxiety, panic, despair
Post traumatic stress DO:

Treatment:SSRI,Nefazodone & bupropion,Benzodiazepines
• Different from PTSD dissociation occurs, duration of symptoms shorter.
• Acute stress disorder:
Treatment for anxiety Disorders: (3)

Psychotherapy:
Insight based treatments, acquiring new skills to face stressful events.
Treatment for anxiety Disorders: (3)

• Pharmacotherapy:
Anxiolytics (benzodiazepines, Xanax, Valium, Ativan, Librium). Hypnotics
Buspirone/BuSpar: not addicting.
Formerly called multiple personality disorders.
Presence of two or more distinct identities that recurrently take control of the individual’s behavior.
• Dissociative identity disorder (DID):
Sudden, unexpected travel away from home or work, accompanied by the inablility to recall one’s past or identity. Many assume new identity
• Dissociative Fugue
Inability to recall important personal info, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
• Dissociative Amnesia:
Persistent or recurrent feelings of being detached from one’s mental processes or body that is accompanied by intact reality testing
• Depersonalization disorder:
Physical symptoms in the absence of clinical significant organic disease
Pt frequently seeks and obtains medical treatment for multiple, clinically significant somatic complaints.
Somatoform disorders:
Complaints must begin before age 30 and the complaints cannot be adequately explained by any general medical disorder or the direct effects of a substance
Somatoform disorders:
A long standing dependency. A preoccupation with the “sick role”. A fear or belief that one has a serious illness in spite of medical reassurances to the contrary.
• Hypochondriasis
Predominant focus in one or more anatomical sites, and pain is of sufficient severity to warrant clinical attention. Pain is better accounted psychological factors (mood & anxiety) vs. severity & maintenance of symptoms.
• Pain disorder:
Exhibits one or more symptoms or deficits that affect voluntary motor or sensory function and that appear to be related to a neurological or general medical condition
• Conversion Disorder:
Drugs for pts with anxiety, dissociative, and somatoform disorders
Psychopharmacological agents (anxiolytics)
Psychopharmacological agents (anxiolytics)
Benzodiazepine agents (anti-anxiety agents)
Xanax (alprazolam)
Valium (Diazepam)
Ativan (lorazepam)
Antidepressants