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55 Cards in this Set

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Clinical (brain study method)
looking at the brain after death.
EEG
look at electrical activity in the brain. also can include implanted electrodes in animals and people.
CT
Computed Tomography. Multiple x-rays to study structure
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Gives detailed image of soft tissues. Different resolution than a CT.
PET
Positron Emission Tomography. Pictures, not x-rays. Looks at brain activity via glucose.
Functional MRI
Combines soft tissue look of the MRI and PET scan structure study.
MEG
Magneto encephalography. Study the brain in real-time by tracking neuron firing patterns.
Lesioning and ablation (study method)
Destroy and study function change. Not used with humans.
Electrical Stimulation
Stimulate and study function
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous system
Everything but the brain and spinal cord.
Autonomic nervous system
Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands. part of the peripheral nervous system.
Sympathetic nervous system
(Accelerator) controls "fight or flight" associated with stress. digestion shuts down when understress because energy is needed elsewhere.
Parasympathetic
(Brakes) controls anabolic processes and resting state. Conserves energy as it calms by decreasing heartbeat and lowering blood sugar. works with the sympathetic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Voluntary movement, like walking and talking.Part of the peripheral nervous system
Neurons
the building block of the nervous system
Neuron structure
cell body, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal and synapse
Acetylcholine (ACH)
Neurotransmitter. Motor and learning/memory.Perpherial and central systems. Anytime you move. People w/alzheimers see a decrease.
Dopamine
Movement,learning,attention and emotion. In executive parts of the brain that decide. Deliver the command. Parkinsons is caused by the shortage. Too much can cause schizoprenia
Serotonin
Neurotransmitter. Mood, appetite and aggression. If not enough, depression.
Norepinephrine
learning, mood. drops when falling asleep. linked to bipolar disorder when to much.
Endorphins
Modulation of arousal and pain. Send signal that inhibits pain. Secreted during stress to regulate the heart and breath.
GABA
Movement. Inhibitory neurotransmitter. Produced while sleeping. undersupply linked to seizures, tremors and insomia.
Glutamate
Memory. More you have, the better you have, and vice versa.
BDNF
Guides synaptic contacts.
Agonists
mimic action or enhance release. L-dopa mimics dopamine and reduces parkinsons symptoms. Morphine mimics endorphins and reduces pain.
Antagonists
Block release or inhibit action. Botulin blocks ACH and paralyzes muscles. (Botox)Thorazine blocks dopamine and reduces schizo symptoms
Reuptake/breakdown Inhibitors
maintain action. Prolong action of bodys own neurotransmitters. Serotonin- prozak blocks reupate of serotonin and reduces depression. SSRI-slective serotonin Reuptake inhibitors
Medulla
first swelling at the base of skull. Controls respiration, heart rate, blood pressure. No medulla, no life.
Pons
Right above medulla, arousal, muslce tone. Keeps us upright. Cardiac reflexes, fucntion of heart. No pons, no life
Reticular Formation
Inside the brain stem. Arousal gateway and sleep. Biological basis for introversion and extroversion.
Pineal Gland and SCN
Circadian and seasonal rhythms. Part of brain stem region. Size of a pine nut. SCN is cluster of neurons.
Thalamus
Neural relay station. Forwards signals to correct station.
Cerebellum
Muscle coordination.
Brain Stem
primiative brain, oldest part, controls vitals.
Midbrain/Limbic
emotional "animal" brain
Cerebral Cortex
Higher order
Hippocampus
Memory formation, transfer of short term to long term memories. In alzheimers, this portion has shrunk.
Amygdala
emotions and aggression.PET scans more active in this region when depressed.
Hypothalamus
regulates Autonamic nervous systerm. Internal thermostat. Tucked into the thalamus. If sick, immune system sends messages to this to make a fever.
frontal lobe
speech, judgement, movement. executive decisions.
Parietal lobe
body sensations.
Occipital lobe
Visual ability
Temporal Lobe
auditory. Face recognition. Language, symbols.
Association areas
information intergration and memory storage
Prefrontal cortex
Controls executive functions
psychopathy
associated with conduct disorders and antisocial personality. linked to the prefrontal cortex.
Left hemisphere
language, math, reasoning, music.
right hemisphere
spatial/perceptual emotional expression
Corpus collosum
fibers linking hemispheres
B lymphocytes
form in bone marrow and relase antibodies that fight bacterial infection
T lymphocytes
form in the thymus and other lumphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances
Stress
the process by which we perveive and respond to certain events
general adaptaion syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion
psychophysiological
"mind-body" illness. any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches